Organizational development is the application to behavioral science principals to improve the functioning of organizations. We discussed four specific techniques that can be used separately or in combination. Management by objectives (MBO) set interlinked goal throughout an organization. Survey feedback uses the results of an employee survey as the basis for group discussion and organization improvement. Team building is a family of techniques that can be used with work teams to improve their functioning. T-groups are a series of group exercises designed to enhance the communication and interpersonal skills of individual.
Existing evidence suggest that Management by objectives (MBO), survey feedback, and team building can be effective interventions, with positive effects on both employee and organizations. On the other hand T-groups have not been found to be effective and have been associated with detrimental effects.
Organizational theories describe how organizations can and should work. Bureaucracy theory is a classical theory that focuses on the structural components of organizations. Theory X and theory Y is a human relations theory that focuses how management philosophy affects the behavior of employees. Open system theory describes organizations in terms of 10 characteristics of open systems. Sociotechnical systems theory is concerned with the interrelations between the human and technical sides of organizations. This theory has led to many interventions, and most of those reported in the research literature have been successful.
Topic 1 is most important because as a HR manager must know about global and facet satisfaction. And he has produce questionnaire to measure employee attitude and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction linked to employee behavior. Lack of satisfaction causes employee turnover. Organizational commitment concerns the employee’s attachment to the organization. It strongly correlate with job satisfaction, job characteristics, turnover, absence and age. So, I think that job satisfaction is very important for organizational growth.
Topic 2 is also important because it tens to focus on different aspects of organization. There are some common ideas and connections among them. In a bureaucracy each persons job is clearly defined with the individual having relatively little autonomy or discretion. This tends to be associated with the leadership style defined as theory X,which includes close supervision and non-participative approaches. Open system theory is quit different. It describes the functioning of an organization in terms of 10 rather general principals and does not recommend specific practices.
These theories provide a broad perspective on organizations and how they function. Some have led to specific applications such as the autonomous work groups based on Sociotechnical systems theory. Others have affected the philosophy of those who manage organizations rather than describing particular techniques. So, I think that organizational development and theory is very important for organizational growth.