Exporting Condition of Garments Industry
 
The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry occupies a unique position in the Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh, which experienced phenomenal growth during the last 20 years. By taking advantage of an insulated market under the provision of Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) of GATT, it attained a high profile in terms of foreign exchange earnings, exports, industrialization and contribution to GDP within a short span of time. The industry plays a key role in employment generation and in the provision of income to the poor. Nearly two million workers are directly and more than ten million inhabitants are indirectly associated with the industry. Over the past twenty years, the number of manufacturing units has grown from 180 to over 3600. The sector has also played a significant role in the socio-economic development of the country. 
 
The Agreement on Textile and Clothing (ATC) introduced in 1994, aimed at  bringing  textiles  and clothing within the domain of WTO rules by abolishing all quotas by the end of 2004. It provides an adjustment period of 10 years, so that countries affected by the MFA could take the necessary steps to adjust to the new trading environment. Liberalization  of  trade following the Uruguay Round agreement presents opportunities as well as challenges for a developing country like Bangladesh  in RMG sector. In the Post-Uruguay Round period, traditional instruments of trade policy such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies will become less feasible and less relevant. In a liberalized trade regime, competition among textiles and clothing exporting countries is likely to become intense. The objective of this paper is to identify the prospects of RMG industry after the MFA phase out by analyzing the current scenario along with different policy measures and the available options in order to be more competitive in the new regime.
 
The export made by Garments Industries of Bangladesh is improving year after year except some of the year. Strike, layout, shutdown of company, political problem, economic problem, inflation etc. are the prime cause of decreasing export in this important sector. But above it, Readymade Garments Industries is the leading sector in export sector.

    Year                            Export (in US $ million)                    Percentage change

1991 – 92                                        624.16                                     32.49

1992 – 93                                        866.82                                     38.88

1993 – 94                                        1182.57                                   36.43

1994 – 95                                        1445.02                                   22.19

1995 – 96                                        1555.79                                   7.67

1996 – 97                                        2228.35                                   43.47

1997 – 98                                        2547.13                                   14.11

1998 – 99                                        3001.25                                   17.83

1999 – 00                                        3781.94                                   26.01

2000 – 01                                        4019.98                                   6.29

2001 -  02                                        4349.41                                   8.19

2002 – 03                                        4859.83                                   11.74

2003 – 04                                        4583.75                                   5.68

2004 – 05                                        4912.12                                   7.21

2005 – 06                                        5686.09                                   15.83

Figure: Year Export by the garments industries (in US $ million)


Position of Bangladesh is exporting product in USA is not very satisfactory but this situation is better than any other condition of the previous time. But if our Government take some essential law and break out the wall of biasness then the position of Bangladesh in Garments sector would be hope to better.