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Foreign Exchange Business L/C of the Prime Bank Limited
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By Super Admin
Published on 29 August 2006
 
Motivation and its Impact on Organizational Growth special Reference to a Letter of Credit (L/C) Operation As a  part of Foreign Exchange Business  to the Prime Bank Limited.

Foreign Exchange Business (L/C) of the Prime Bank Limited

Letter of Transmittal

Jun 20, 2000

...............
Lecturer
The School of Business
Asian University of Bangladesh
Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230.

Subject : Submission of Internship Report.

Dear Sir,
It is my great pleasure to submit the internship report on "Motivation and its impact on organizational growth special reference to a Letter of Credit  (L/C) Operation as a part of foreign exchange business to the Prime Bank Limited" Which is a part of BBA Final Semester  to you for your consideration.

I made sincere efforts to study related materials, documents, observe operations performed in Prime Bank Limited and Examine relevant records for preparation of the report.

Within the time limit, I have to make this report as comprehensive as possible. But there may be some mistakes due to various limitations. For this reason, I beg your kind consideration in this regard.

Thank You.

Yours Faithfully,

..............................
BBA Final Semester
ID No - ......
The School of Business
Asian University of Bangladesh
Uttara Model Town,Dhaka - 1230.

 

Acknowledgement

I express my sincere gratitude and thanks to my program supervisor ............, Lecturer, School of Business, Asian University of Bangladesh for his brilliant and excellence guidance and assistance to complete this report.

On the other hand, I am really thankfulness from my deep heart to Late Mr. Anwar Hossain  Senior Vice-President, Human Resources Division, Head Office, Prime Bank Limited, Motijheel, Dhaka. I also wish to express my gratitude to dear Mr. Yahya N. Adnan, Senior Vice-President & Branch in-charge and Mr. Md. Mahiuddin Ahmed, First Asst. Vice-President and many special thanks to Mr. Md. Abdul Bari Mollah, Senior Officer, Foreign exchange department, Prime Bank Limited, Mohakhali Branch, Mohakhali, Dhaka, for solving my problems with a smiling face.

Finally, I am grateful to Prof. Dr.Jahirul Haque, Din of The School of Business, Asian University of Bangladesh for providing me such an opportunity to conducts a Internship program on "Motivation and its impact on organizational growth special reference to a Letter of Credit (L/C) operation as a part of foreign exchange business to  the Prime Bank Limited."

..........................

 


AN OVER VIEW OF PRIME BANK LIMITED

CHAPTER - ONE

AN OVER VIEW OF PRIME BANK LIMITED

1.1 INTRODUTION OF PRIME BANK LIMITED

Prime Bank Limited (PBL) was established on 17th April, 1995 with an Authorized Capital of Tk. 1000 Million and Paid up Capital of Tk. 100 Million (raised to Tk. 200 Million in 1997) by a group of highly successful entrepreneurs from various fields of economic activities such as shipping, oil, finance, garments, textiles and insurance etc. It is a full licensed scheduled Commercial Bank set up in the private sector in pursuance of the policy of the Government to liberalize Banking & Financial services.

The Chairman of the Bank, Mr. Md. Nader Khan is a renowned business elite of Chittagong. He is also the Chairman of Drum Kulshi Girls High School, Fatikchari, Chittagong and Vice-President of the Governing Body of CIDER International School and also a member of the CIDER Trust. He has also been elected as Vice-District Governor of Lion District 315 B4 for the year 1999-2000.

The former Government of the Bangladesh Bank Mr. Lutfar Rahman Sarkar was the first Managing Director of the Bank. The Bank is being managed by highly professional people having wide experience in domestic and international Banking.

The present Managing Director Mr. Kazi Abdul Mazid has long experience in domestic and international Banking. The Bank has made significant process within a very short time due to its very competent Board of Directors, dynamic management and introduction of various customer friendly deposit and loan products.


Organogram Of Prime Bank Limited (PBL)

1.2 ORGANOGRAM OF PBL

Managing Director (MD)
Deputy Managing Director (DMP)
Senior Executive Vice President (SEVP)
Executive Vive President (EVP)
Senior Vice President (SVP)
Vice President (VP)
Senior Assistant Vice President (SAVP)
Assistant Vice President (AVP)
First Assistant Vice President (FAVP)
Senior Executive Officer (SEO)
Executive Officer (EO)
Principal Officer (PO) 
Senior Officer (SO)
Management Trainee Officer (MTO)
Junior Officer (JO)

Number of employees of PBL

Sl. Employee Status                           No. of Employee

1. Managing Director                                    1
2. Deputy Managing Director                        1
3. Sr. Executive Vice-President                     1
4. Executive Vice-President                           1
5. Sr. Vice President                                     13
6.  Vice President                                          12
7. Sr. Asst. Vice President                             8
8. Asst. Vice President                                  15
9. First Asst. Vice President                           26
10. Senior Executive Officer                           38
11. Executive Officer                                      55
12. Principal Officer                                       15
13. Senior Officer                                          48
14. Management Trainee Officer                    107
15. Junior Officer                                           106
16. Driver                                                      13
                                                          Total - 460  

Number of Branches of PBL

Total Number of Branches of PBL is 20 (Twenty ).      


AT A GLANCE OF PBL

1.3 AT A GLANCE OF PBL AS ON 30TH JUNE, 1999

Business Reporter

Prime Bank Limited performed well in the first half despite the difficult economic environment with an increase in operating Profit by 102% to Tk. 138.78 Million compared to the same period last year. The Bank also made its mark in efficiently managing its loan portfolio by keeping the Classified Loans and Advances at 1.98% being one of the lowest in the Banking Sector of the country, says a press relea

The Board of Prime Bank Limited takes the privilege to welcome you all to the Fifth Annual General Meeting and has the pleasure to present the Fifth Annual Report of the Bank along with the Annual Account and Auditors Report for the year 1999.

i) Bangladesh Economy-an Overview
Bangladesh is pursuing a prudent monetary and fiscal policy in order to achieve higher economic growth as well as maintaining macro-economic stability. The country has been largely successful in implementing the rehabilitation programs to make up the colossal damage caused by the devastating flood of 1998 and achieved 5.2 percent GDP growth in FY 1999 as against 5.7 percent in the previous year. The inflation rate has come down significantly to 7.2% at the end of November 1999 mainly due to bumper crop production. The monetary and credit policy for FY 2000 has been formulated with the objective of keeping foreign exchange reserves at a satisfactory level and rate of inflation at a tolerable limit. Adoption of measures like massive agricultural credit disbursement and increased input supply have contributed a lot to bumper crop production in FY 1999. Similar measures have also been undertaken to maintain higher growth in agriculture in current FY 2000.

Performance of the Industrial Sector, however, was not satisfactory during the year. After growing by 9.5% in 1997-98, industrial production fell to 2.5% in 1998-99. The total value of GDP, however, increased to US$ 36503 million compared to US$ 34059 million in the previous year increasing per Capita GDP to US$ 282 compared to US$ 268 in last year.

ii) Money and Banking
Monetary and credit policies in Bangladesh were pursued with a view to accelerate the pace of economic activities during FY 1999. Total domestic Credit during the year rose by 13.1% compared to 12.6% in 1998-99, net credit to private sector increased by 13.8% compared to 13% increase in 1997-98. Money supply growth was 8.6% in 1998-99 compared to 4.8% in 1997-98. During the year, Bank deposits increased by 14.2% to Tk. 592340 million which was 11.3% in the preceding year.

Total export earnings during the year 1998-99 was US$ 5324 million compared to US$ 5172 million in 1997-98 showing a growth of 2.9% Total import payment for 1998-99 was US$ 8018 million which was 6.6% higher than that of  the previous year. The current account deficit increased to US$ 394 million from US$ 253 million in the preceding year due to increase in import payment during the year.

Bangladesh Bank reduced Bank Rate (the rate at which it lends to Commercial Banks) to 7% from 8% with effect from August 29, 1999. The minimum Cash Reserve Requirement (CRR) of the scheduled banks to be maintained with Bangladesh Bank has been reduced from 5% to 4% However, Statutory Liquidity Requirement (SLR) remained unchanged at 20%.

Bangladesh Bank also placed severe restriction with regard to credit allocation to the Directors of Private Banks (Incidentally since inception, the Directors of Prime Bank do not borrow from their own Bank as a policy  decision decision of the Board).


Prime Bank Limited

iii) Prime Bank Limited
Prime Bank Limited witnessed a considerable improvement in its overall business performance during the year 1999. The Bank achieved satisfactory progress in all areas of its operation and earned an operating Profit of Tk. 360.51 million showing a growth of 63% over the previous year. The Bank, as a prudent measure, marked down the value of investment in shares and securities to market price as on 31-12-99 by complying with International Accounting Standard (IAS-30)

After making full provision, the net pre tax-Profit of the Bank for the year stood at Tk. 316.77 million compared to Tk. 17.39 million in 1998. The return on Assets (ROA) was 5.30% well above the industry average.

iv) Capital Funds
The Authorized and Paid up Capital of the Bank are Tk. 1000.00 million and Tk. 400.00 million respectively. The Bank raised its paid up capital from Tk. 200.00 million to Tk. 400.00 million during the year through Public Issue of 2,000,000 ordinary shares at par value of Tk. 100.00. With the increase of Paid-up Capital to Tk. 400.00 million, the capital base of Prime Bank Limited has become one of the strongest. The total Capital Funds of the Bank at the year end stood at Tk. 719.23 million against Tk. 293.70 million in the previous year. The Capital Adequacy Ratio is 15.14% as on 31-12-99, which is well above the stipulated 8% required for Banks in Bangladesh. The ratio of Tierl capital is 14.06%.

v) Deposits
Deposits of the Bank grew by 44% to Tk. 7660.02 million as at 31st December 1999 as against national average of 14.20%. The Bank introduced several deposit schemes to encourage and mobilize savings. Major savings schemes include the following :-
• Contributory Savings Scheme
• Monthly Benefit Deposit Scheme
• Special Deposit Scheme
• Education Savings Scheme
• 30 Day's Term FDR
• Prime Bank Money Scheme
• Prime Bank Insured Fixed Deposit Scheme

Our various purpose-oriented deposit schemes have been appreciated by the Public and have gained good popularity. As on 31-12-99, deposits under above schemes stood at Tk. 1005.57 million as against Tk. 812.37 million in the last year showing an increase of 24% over the preceding year.

vi) Loans and Advances
Loans and Advances of the Bank stood at Tk. 5027.37 million as on 31-12-99 against Tk. 3127.77 million last year. During the year under review, the Bank extended loans and advances of Tk. 1899.60 million to the private sector for domestic and international trade as well as for project finance and working capital. Due to liberal Credit to Export Sector, the Bank was able to handle larger volume of Foreign Exchange Business. The Bank also extended a number of project finance and industrial loans in syndication with other Banks.

vii) Leading in Consumer Banking
Prime Bank Limited is a leading Bank for consumers and small business with a commanding presence in Consumer Credit, Hire Purchase and Lease Finance. The Consumer Credit Scheme of the Bank, which aims to help the fixed income group in raising standard of living, has been widely appreciated. Total 10618 customers have enjoyed Credit facility to the extent of Tk. 480.41 million under the Scheme. The rate of recovery of loan under the scheme is 96%. The Bank also recently introduced Credit Card both domestic and international as principal member of Master Card International.

viii) Quality of Risk Assets
In order to maintain high quality of risk assets, utmost efforts are made by the Board of Directors and by the Management on an ongoing basis. A Credit Committee at Bank's Head Office sits every day to monitor the quality of loans. As on 31-12-99, the Bank's ratio of classified loans to total loans is only 1.63% as against 1.77% in the last year which is one of the lowest in Bangladesh. The Bank has made full provision against classified loans in addition to making provision of 1% against unclassified loans.
Prime Bank Limited follows International Accounting Standard (IAS-30) in assessing the value of its investment in shares at the year end.


Foreign Exchange Business (Prime Bank Limited)

ix) Foreign Exchange Business
In the year under review, Foreign Trade Operation of the Bank played a pivotal role in the overall business development of the Bank. We have established relationship with as many as 30 new foreign correspondents abroad thereby raising the total number of correspondents to 230. During the year 1999, the Bank handled Foreign Exchange transactions amounting to Tk. 17855.40 million which is an increase of 67% over the last year. The Bank has also entered into remittance arrangements with several Banks and Exchange Houses and expects to handle increased volume of Remittance Business.

x) Treasury
Prime Bank Limited is one of the first local banks in Bangladesh to integrate treasury dealings of local Money-Market and Foreign Currency under one Treasury umbrella. The Bank has handled significant volume of Treasury transactions during 1999. Prime Bank's Dealing Room is connected with automated Reuters Terminal facility thus enabling the bank to provide forward / future facilities to its corporate clients at a very competitive rate.

xi) SWIFT
Prime Bank Limited is one of the first few Bangladeshi Banks who have become member of SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) in 1999. SWIFT is members owned co-operative, which provides a fast and accurate communication network for financial transactions such as Letters of Credit, Fund transfer etc. By becoming a member of SWIFT, the Bank has opened up possibilities for uninterrupted connectivity with over 5,700 user institutions in 150 countries around the world.

xii) Automation in Banking Operation

(a) : Information Technology in Banking Operation
Prime Bank Limited adopted automation in banking operation from the first day of its operation. The main objective of this automation is to provide efficient and prompt services to our valued clients. At present all the branches of the Bank are computerized. At branch level, we are using server based multi-user software under UNIX operating system to provide best security of information.

Prime Bank Limited is providing comprehensive range of Banking Services with utmost care and efficiency to its customers. The customers can draw cash from their accounts in just within a minute.

(b) : On-line Branch Banking
The Bank has set up a Wide Area Network (WAN) across the country to provide On-line branch banking facility to its valued clients. Under the scheme, clients of one branch shall be able to do banking transaction at any other branch of the Bank.
The Bank also hosted its own Web Site (www.primebank.com) to facilitate dissemination of information about its banking services & facilities to outside world. The Bank is also going to provide 24 hour customer services by installing Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in the near future.

xiii) Credit Card
Prime Bank Limited obtained Principal Membership of Master-Card International in the month of May 1999. Within a period of 6 months, the Bank successfully launched Master Card-Credit Card which created a new dimension in its customer service and consumer financing.
The special feature of the Prime Bank  Master Card is that its bears the card holder's photo on the card, which is the first of its kind in Bangladesh and adds security against misuse. Prime Bank Limited issues 4 types of cards. These are Gold Local & International and Silver Local & International. Local cards can be used in Bangladesh only.

xiv) Investment in Securities and Capital Market Operation
The year 1999 was again a difficult year as it was in 1998for the capital market. All Share price Index in the year was persistently on the declining trend. Under such a situation, the Merchant Banking and investment division of the Bank had  to carry out operation in the area of capital market in a vary cautious manner during the year. The Division concentrated its operation in the areas of underwriting of IPOs and advance against Shares.

It is worth mentioning that Prime Bank Limited follows International Accounting Standard (IAS-25 & 30) in valuing is investments in shares & securities at the year end.

The Bank has applied for a license to set up a Non-Bank Financial Institution with a view to diversifying activities in Capital Market operations. The approval of Bangladesh Bank is awaited.


Management and Human Resources

xv) Management and Human Resources
A well-educated, skilled and enterprising workforce with wide experience in banking is a precondition for the continued growth and progress of any bank. Our aim is to recruit and retain a competent workforce. We recruit experienced Bankers as well as fresh University Graduates whom we train through our own Training Institute. As on 31st December 1999, our human resources strength was 452.

xvi) Prime Bank Training Institute
Prime Bank Training Institute was set up in July 22, 1998 with the aim to build up a strong and skilled workforce. The Institute is located at 19, Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka.

During the year, the Institute organized 4 (four) training courses on basic foundation of Banking, International Trade Finance and Foreign Exchange and Lending Risk Analysis which were participated by 96 participants. The Institute also conducted 7 (seven) workshops where a total of 245 participants attended. Apart from the Senior Executives of the Bank, eminent educationists and professionals were invited as guest speakers.

xvii) Islamic Banking Braches
Prime Bank Limited is operation branches on both conventional interest based banking and Islamic Shariah Principle based banking. The Islamic Banking operations are completely separate from the conventional Banking.
We have established a Shariah Board to advise and provide guidance on Islamic Banking operations. The following Islamic scholars having vast knowledge and ideas in Islamic Shariah relating to banking operations sit on the Board:

Janab Moulana Obaidul Haque, Khatib,
Baitul Mukarram National Mosque.                                   Chairman

Janab Shah Abdul Hannan, Former Chairman
Ministry of Finance and
Dy. Governor, Bangladesh Bank.                                      Vice Chairman

Jnab Moulana Mohammad Salahuddin
Principal, Alia Madrasa, Dhaka                                          Member
 
Jnab Moulana Abul Kalam Azad
Secretary General, Bangladesh Masjid Mission.                  Member

Janab Dr. M. Shamsher Ali,
Professor, Dhaka University                                                Member

Janab A.S.M. Fakhrul Ahsan, Director General,
Islamic Bank Training and Research Academy
and Former Dy. Governor, Bangladesh Bank.                     Member
 
Dr. R.A. Ghani, a member of the Board of Directors and Mr. Kazi Abdul Mazid, Managing Director of the Bank are also members of the Shariah Board.


Branch Expansion

During the year under review, our Islamic Banking Branches paid the following rates of Profit its the depositors which are highly competitive :

     Types of Deposits                                 Profit rate for the year 1999
1.  Mudaraba Saving Deposit                                    8.00%
2.  Mudaraba STD                                                    5.50%
3.  Mudaraba Term Depost - 3 months                      9.00%
4.  Mudaraba Term Depost - 6 months                      9.25%
5.  Mudaraba Term Depost - 12 months                    9.50%
6.  Mudaraba Term Depost - 24 months                   10.00%
7.  Mudaraba Term Depost - 36 months                   10.50%
8.  Monthly Benefit Deposit Scheme                         10.90%
9.  Monthly Contributory Savings Scheme                 11.50%
10.  Education Savings Scheme                                 12.50%

xviii) Branch Expansion
The number of branches of the Bank stood at 20 (Twenty) as on 31st December 1999. 18 of them have been licensed by Bangladesh Bank as Authorized Dealers in Foreign Exchange and they can transact all types of Foreign Exchange Business. During the year under review, 2 (Two) branches were opened at Bangshal, Dhaka and at Jessore. The Bank has plan to open 10 more branches during the year 2000 at different important and commercial places all over the country.

xix) Dividend
The Board of Directors of the Bank has been pleased to recommend 30% cash dividend for the year 1999 to the shareholders of the Bank subject to approval of Bangladesh Bank.

The members of the Board of Directors of Prime Bank Limited take this opportunity to offer their sincere thanks to the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank and Security Exchange Commission for their valuable guidance and co-operation extended to the Bank from time to time. The Board also places on record its appreciation for excellent services rendered by the employees of the Bank. Finally, the Board of Directors expresses its gratitude to the valued clients, patrons, and well wishes of the Bank for their continued support and co-operation.


FOREIGN EXCHANGE (Prime Bank Limited)

CHAPTER-TWO
FOREIGN EXCHANGE

2.1 DEFINITION OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE

Foreign Exchange is a process which is converted one national currency into another and transferred money from one country to another countries.

According to Mr. H. E. Evitt. Foreign Exchange is that section of economic science which deals with the means and method by which right to wealth in one country's currency are converted into rights to wealth in terms of another country's currency. It involved the investigation of the method by which the currency of one country is exchanged for that of another, the causes which rented such exchange necessary the forms which exchange may take and the ratio or equivalent values at which such exchanges are effected.

Foreign exchange is the rate of exchange in the both country's currency.

2.2 FOREIGN TRADE AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE
International trade refers to trade between  the residents of two different countries.
Each country functions as a sovereign State with its set of regulations and currency. The difference in the national of the exporter and the importer presents certain peculiar problems in the conduct of international trade and settlement of the transactions arising therefrom. Important among such problems are :

(a) Different countries have different monetary units;
(b) Restrictions imposed by countries on import and export of goods;
(c) Restrictions imposed by nations on payment from and into their countries;
(d) Differences in legal practices in different countries.

Foreign exchange means foreign currency and includes :-
(i)
 All deposits, credits and balances payable in any foreign currency and any drafts, 
travelers cheques, letters of credit and bills of exchange, expressed or drawn in Indian currency but payable in any foreign currency;
(ii) Any instrument payable, at the option of the drawee or holder thereof or any other party thereto. Either in Indian currency or in foreign currency or partly in one and partly in the other. Thus, foreign exchange includes foreign currency, balances kept abroad and instruments payable in foreign currency.  


2.3 PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE

The following principles are involved in Foreign exchange :
i) The entire system
ii) The media used
iii) The monetary unit.

2.4 FUNCTION OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE

The Bank actions as a media for the system of foreign exchange policy. For this reason, the employee who is related of the bank to foreign exchange, specially foreign business should have knowledge of these following functions :-

i) Rate of exchange.
ii) How the rate of exchange works.
iii) Forward and spot rate.
iv) Methods of quoting exchange rate.
v) Premium and discount.
vi) Risk of exchange rate.
vii) Causes of exchange rate.
viii) Exchange control.
ix) Convertibility.
x) Exchange position.
xi) Intervention money.
xii) Foreign exchange transaction.
xiii) Foreign exchange trading.
xiv) Export and import letter of credit.
xv) Non-commercial letter of trade.
xvi) Financing of foreign trade.
xvii) Nature and function of foreign exchange market.
xviii) Rules and Regulation used in foreign trade.
xix) Exchange Arithmetic.


LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C) - Prime Bank Limited

CHAPTER-THREE

LETTER OF CREDIT(L/C)

3.1 DEFINITION OF L/C

On behalf of the importer if the bank undertakes to make payment to the foreign bank is known as documentary credit or letter of credit.
A letter of credit is an instrument issued by a bank to a customer placing at the letters disposal such agreed sums in foreign currency as stipulated. An importer is a country request his bank to open a credit in foreign currency in favour of his exporter at a bank in the letters country. The letter of credit is issued against payment of amount by the importer or against satisfactory security. The L/C authorizes the exporter to draw a draft under is terms and sell to a specified bank in his country. He has to hand over to the bank, will the Bill of exchange, shipping documents and such other papers as may be agree upon between the exporter and the importer. The exporter is assured of his payment because of the credit while the importer is protected because documents in respect of export of goods have to be delivered by the exporter to the paying bank before the payment is made.

3.2 From of letter of credit

A letter of credit (L/C) may be two forms. These as below :
i) Revocable letter of credit.
ii) Irrevocable letter of credit.


(i) Revocable L/C : If any letter of credit can be amendment or change of any clause or canceled by consent of the exporter and importer is known as revocable letter of credit.

A revocable letter of credit can be amended or canceled by the issuing bank at any time without prior notice to the beneficiary. It does not constitute a legally binding undertaking by the bank to make payment. Revocation is possible only nntil the documents have been honoured by the issuing bank or its correspondent. Thus a revocable credit does not usually provide adequate security for the beneficiary.

(ii) Irrevocable L/C : If any letter of credit can not be changed or amendment without the consent of the importer and exporter is known as irrevocable letter of credit.

An irrevocable credit constitutions a firm undertaking by the issuing bank to make payment. It therefore, gives the beneficiary a high degree  of assurance that he will paid to his goods or services provide he complies with terms of the credit.

3.3 TYPES OF LETTER OF CREDIT

Letter of Credit are classified into various types according to the method of settlement employed. All credits must clearly indicate in major categories.

i) Sight payment credit.
ii) Deferred payment credit.
iii) Acceptance credit.
iv) Negotiation credit.
v) Red close credit.
vi) Revolving credit.
vii) Stand by credit.
viii) Transferable credit.

(i) Sight payment credit : The most commonly used credits are sight payment credits. These provide for payment to be made to the  beneficiary immodestly after presentation of the stipulated documents on the condition that the terms of the credit have been complied with. The banks are allowed reasonable time to examine the documents.

(ii) Deferred payment credit : Under a deferred payment credit the beneficiary does not receive payment when his presents the documents but at a later date specified in the credit. On presenting the required documents, he received the authorized banks written undertaking to make payment of maturity. In this way the importer gains possession of the documents before being debited for the amount involved.

In terms of its economic effect a deterred payment credit is equivalent to an acceptance credit, except that there is no bill of exchange and therefore no
possibility of obtaining money immediately through a descant transaction. In certain circumstances, how ever, the banks payment undertaking can be used as collateral for an advance, though such as advance will normally only be available form the issuing or confirming bank. A discountable bill offers wider scope.


TYPES OF LETTER OF CREDIT

(iii) Acceptance Credit : With an acceptance credit payment is made in the  form of a tern bill of exchange drawn on the buyer, the issuing bank or the pendent bank. Once he has fulfilled the credit requirements, the beneficiary can demand that the bill of exchange be accepted and returned to him. Thus the accepted bill takes the place of a cash payment.

The beneficiary can present the we accented bill to his own bank for payment at maturity or for discounting, depending on whether or not he wants cash immediately. For simplicities sake the beneficiary usually gives on instruction that the accepted bill should be left in the safekeeping of one of the banks involved until it matures. Bill of exchange drawn under acceptances credit usually have a term of 60-180 days.

The purpose of an acceptance is to give the importer time to make payment. It he sells the goods before payments fall due, he can use the precedes to meet the bill of Exchange in this way, he does not have to borrow money to finance the transaction.

(vi) Negotiation credit : Negotiation means the purchase and sale of bill of exchange or other marketable instruments. A negotiation credit is a commercial letter of credit opened by the issuing bank in the currency of its own country and addressed directly to the beneficiary. The letter is usually delivered to the addressee by a corespondent bank. This credit is sometimes also as Hand on credit.

The letter of credit empowers the beneficiary to draw a bill of exchange on the using bank, on any other named drawer or on the applicant for the credit. The beneficiary can them present this bill to a bank for negotiation, together with the original letter of credit and the documents stipulated therein.

Payment of the bill of exchange is guaranteed by the issuing bank on the condition that the documents presented by the beneficiary are in order. The most common form of negotiation credit permits negotiation by any bank. In rare case the choice is limited to specified banks.

(iv) Red clause credit : In the case of a red clauses credit, the seller can obtain an advance for an agreed amount from the correspondent bank, goods that are going to be delivered under the documentary credit. On receiving the advances, the beneficiary must give a receipt and provide a written undertaking to present the required documents before the credit expires.

The advance is paid by the correspondent bank, but it is the using bank that assumes liability. If the sellers does not present the required documents in time and fails to refund the advance, the correspondent bank debits the issuing bank with the amount of the advance plus interest. The issuing bank, in turn, has reveres to the applicant, who therefore bears the risk for the advance and the interest accursed.

The clause permitting the correspondent bank to make an advance used to be written on red in home the name red clause credit.
   
(v) Revolving Credit : Revolving credit can be used when goods are to be delivered in installment at specified intervals. The amount available at any one time is equivalent to the value of one partial delivery.

A revolving credit can be cumulative or non-cumulative means that amount from unused or incompletely used portions can be carried forward to subsequent period. If a credit is non-cumulative, portions not used in the prescribing period case to be available.

(vi) Stand by credit : Stand by credit are encountered principally in the US. Under the laws of most US states, banks are prohibited from issuing regular quarantines, so credits are used instead. In Europe, too the use of this type of credit is increasing by virtue of their documentary credit, stand-by credit are governed by the UCP. However, their function is that of a grantee.

The types of payment and performance that can be guaranteed by stand-by credits include the following :

- Payment of thorium bill of exchange
- Repayment of bank advance
- Payment of goods delivered.
- Delivery of goods in accordance wets contract and
- Execution of construction contracts, supply and install contracts.

In order to enforce payment by the bank, the beneficiary merely presents a declaration stating that the applicant for the credit has failed to meet his contractual obligation. This declaration may have to be accompanied by other documents.

(vii) Transferable credit : Transferable credit are particularly well adapted to the requirements of international trade. A trader who receives payment from a buyer in the form of a transferable documentary credit can use that credit to pay his own supplier. This enables him to carry out the transaction with only a limited and lay of his own funds.

The buyer supplies for an irrecoverable credit issued in the traders favour. The issuing bank must expressly designate the credit as transferable.
As soon as the trader receives the confirmation of credit he can request the bank to transfer the credit to his supplier. The bank is under no obligation to effect the transfer except in so far as it has expressly consented to do so.

The costs of the transfer are usually charged to the trader and the transferring bank is entitled to delete them in advance.


PARTIES TO A LETTER OF CREDIT

3.4 PARTIES TO A LETTER OF CREDIT

A letter of credit is issued by a bank at the request of an importer in  favour of an exporter from whom he has contracted to purchases some commodity or commodities. The importer, the exporter and the issuing bank are parties to the letter of credit. There are however, one or more than one banks that are involved in various capacities and at various stages to play an important role in the total operation of the credit.

i) The opening Bank.
ii) The Advising Bank.
iii) The Buyer and the Beneficiary.
iv) The paying Bank.
v) The negotiating Bank.
vi) The confirming Bank.

i) The opening Bank : The opening Bank is one that issues the letter of credit at the request of the buyer. By issuing a letter of credit it takes upon itself the liability to pay the bills drawn under the credit. If the drafts are negotiated by the another bank, the opening Bank reimburses that Bank. As soon as the opening Bank, issuing a letter of credit (L/C), it express its undertaking to pay the bill or bills as and when they are drawn by the beneficiary under the credit. When the bills are presented to or when antic is received that bills have been presented to a paying or negotiating Banks its liability matures.

ii) The Advising Bank : The letter of credit is often transmitted to the beneficiary through a bank in the latters country. The bank may be a branch or a correspondent of the opening bank. The credit is some times advised to this bank by cable and is then transmitted by it to the beneficiary on its own special form. On the other occasions, the letter is sent to the bank by mail or telex and forwarded by it to the exporter. The bank providing this services is known as the advising bank. The advising bank undertakes the responsibility of prompt advice of credit to the beneficiary and has to be careful in communicating all its details.

iii) The Buyer and the Beneficiary : The importer at whose request a letter of credit is issued is known as the buyer. On the strength of the contract that he makes with the exporter for the purchase of some goods that the letter of credit is opened by the opening bank.

The exporter in whose favour the credit is opened and to whom the letter of credit is addressed is known as the beneficiary. As the seller of goods he is entitled to receive payment which he does by drawing bills under the letter of credit (L/C). As soon as he has shipped the goods and has collected the required documents, he draws a set of papers and presents it with the documents to the opening bank or some other bank mentioned in the L/C.

iv) The paying Bank : The paying bank only pays the drafts drawn under the credit but under takes no opening bank, by debating the latters accounts with it if there is such an account or by any other measured up, between the two bankers. As soon as the beneficiary has received payment for the draft, he is out of the picture and the rest of the operation concerns only the paying bank and the opening bank.

v) The Negotiating bank : The negotiating bank has to be careful in scrutinize that the drafts and the documents attached there to are in conformity with the condition laid down in the L/C. Any discrepancy may result in refused on the part of the opening bank to honour the instruments is such an eventuality the negotiating bank has to look back to the beneficiary for refund of the amounts paid to him.

vi) The Confirming Bank : Sometimes an exporter stipulates that a L/C issued in his favour be confirm by a bank in his own country. The opening this country to add its confirming to the credit the bank confirming the credit is known as the confirming bank and the credit is known as confirmed credit.


CONTENTS OF THE LETTER OF CREDIT

3.5  CONTENTS OF THE LETTER OF CREDIT

Banks normally issued letter of credit (L/C) on forms which clearly  indicate the banks name and extent of the banks obligation under the credit. The contents of the l/c of different Banks may be different .In general l/c contain the follwing information :-

i) Name of the buyer : who is also known as the accounted since it is for his account that the credit has been opened.
ii) Name of the seller : Who is also known as the beneficiary of the credit.
iii) Moment of the credit : Which should be the value of the merchandise plus any shipping charges intent to be paid under the credit.
iv) Trade terms : Such as F.O.B and CIF
v) Tenor of the Draft which is normally dependent upon the requirements of the buyer.
vi) Expiration date : Which is specified the latest date documents may be presented. In this manner or by including additionally a latest shipping date, the buyer may exercise control over the time of shipment.
vii) Documents required : Which will normally include commercial invoice consular or customers invoice, insurance policies as certificates, if the source is to be effected by the beneficiary and original bills of lading.
viii) General description of the merchandise :   Which briefly and in a general manner duly describes the merchandise covered by a letter of credit.


3.6 PROCEDURES OF OPENING THE L/C

The importer after receiving the proforma invoice from the exporter, by applying for the issue of a documentary credit, the importer request his bank to make a promise of payment to the supplier. Obviously, the bank will only agree to this request if it can rely on reimbursement by the applicant. As a rule accepted as the sole security for the credit particularly if they are not the short of commodity that can be traded on an organized market, such an arrangement would involve the bank in excessive risk outside its specialist field. The applicant must therefore have adequate funds in the bank account or a credit line sufficient to cover the required amount.

Banks deal in documents and not in goods. Once the bank has issued the credits its obligation to pay is conditional on the presentation of the stipulated documents with in the prescribed time limit. The applicant cannot prevent a bank from honouring the documents on the grounds that the beneficiary has not delivered goods on redder reissues as contracted.

The importer submit the following documents before opening of the L/C :
a. Tax Identification Number (TIN)
b. Valid Trade License.
c. Import Registration Certificate (IRC)

The Bank will supply the following documents before opening of the L/C :
a.  LCA form.
b. Application and Agreement form.
c. IMP form
d. Necessary charge documents for documentation.

The above documents / papers must be completed duly signed and filled in by the party according to the instruction of the banker.


DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT

3.7 DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT (IMPORT/EXPORT DCUMENTATION) 

Documentary letter of credit is such kinds of commercial letter which a bank issue on behalf of foreign seller (exporter) according to the direction of the (importers) purchasers. The documents shown under are known as export documents form the importer's side. These are :-

(i) Bill of exchange : The bill of exchange is that particular instrument through which payment is effected in trade deals internal and international. The payment for the goods is received by the seller through the medium of a bill of exchange drawn on the buyer for the amount depending on the contract. It is a negotiable instrument. There are five main parties involved in a bill of exchange. They are :-

(a) Drawer
(b) Drawee
(c) Payee
(d) Endorser
(e) Endorsee

(ii) Bill of lading : A bill lading is a document of title to goods entitling the holder to receive the goods as beneficiary or endorsee and it is with the help of this document on receipt from the exporter that the importer takes possession of the goods from the carrying vessel at the port of destination.

(iii) Airway bill / Railway receipt : When goods to be transported are small in bulk or requiring speedy delivery or those are perishable in nature on the deal is in between the neighboring countries then mode of transports other than shipping may be resorted to far the carriage of the goods Airways bill / Railway receipt take place of Bill of lading depending on the nature of the carrier.

(iv) Commercial invoice : It is the seller's bill for the merchandise. It contains a description of goods, the price per unit at a particular location, total value of the goods, packing specifications, terms of sale, letter of credit, bill of lading number etc. There is no standard form far a commercial invoice. Each exporter designs his own commercial invoice form. The invoice is made out by the seller under his signature in the name of the buyer and must be submitted in a set of at least 3 copies. Its main purpose is to check whether the appropriate goods have been shipped and also that their unit price, total value, marking on the package etc. are consistent with those given in other documents.

(v) Insurance policy : In the international trade insurance policy is a must to cover the risk of loss on consignments while they are on seas, roads, airways. The insurance is the responsibility of the buyers (consignee) under FAS, FOB and C&F contracts and of the seller (consignor) under CIF contract. The policy must be of the type as specified in the relative contract / credit. The policy would be for the value of CIF price plus 10 (ten) percent to cover the expenses and that is required to be obtained in the same currency as that of the credit and dated not later than the date of shipment with claims* being payable at the destination. It must be properly stamped. Like a bill lading it must be negotiable and be endorsed where it is payable to order.

(vi) Certificate of origin : This is a certificate issued by a recognized authority in exporting country certifying the country of origin of the goods. It is usually by the Chambers of commerce. Some times, it is certified by local consul or Trade Representative of the importing country as per terms of the credit.

(vii) Packing list : The exporter must prepare an accurate packing list showing item by item, the contents of the consignment to enable the receiver of the shipment to check the contents of the goods, number and marks of the package, quality, per package net weight, gross weight, measurement etc.

(viii) Weightment and Measurement : Issued by recognized authority (like chambers of commerce and industry) in exporting country certifying correct weightment and measurement of the goods exported.

(ix) Bill of entry : A bill of entry is a document which contain the particulars of the imported goods as well as the amount of customs duty payable.

The exporter submit the following papers/documents to the Negotiating bank :

i) Bill of exchange / Draft.
ii) Bill of lading.
iii) Airway bill / Railway receipt.
iv) Commercial invoice.
v) Insurance policy.
vi) Certificate of origin.
vii) Packing list.
viii) Weightment & measurement list.
ix) Other etc.

The negotiating bank after received the above documents / papers then this bank scrutiny the documents. The negotiating bank sends the original shipping documents to the L/C opening bank and keeping the second copy with the negotiating bank.

Payment Against Documents (PAD)

Banks deal in documents and not in goods. If the shipping document against the L/C is in order then the L/C opening bank must have to payment to the foreign bank within 3 days or 72 hours according as Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credit (UCPDC) 500 of revision of ICC.

If the shipping documents have any discrepancy, then the L/C opening bank informed to the negotiating bank within 7 days. Otherwise, the shipping documents have not discrepancy. If the importer have not adequate founds in the bank account then the bank payment to the foreign bank against the shipping documents.


L/C OPERATION OF PBL

3.8 L/C OPERATION OF PBL

Today PBL is one of the leading and most successful Banking enterprises in the country. If pay a great role in the economy of the country. By export-import business the bank play a great role to the economy of Bangladesh. PBL is one of the greatest bank in export-import business.

Foreign trade plays a vital role in the economic advancement process of a nation. So the trend of country's foreign trade, i.e import & export is of a great concern to the government of a country. Fluctuation in the parameters of foreign trade immediately brings about some impact on the total economy. As such the nature, trend and the volume of foreign trade are required to keep peace with the national economic needs and objective. There may be some areas where emphasis is to be given while there may be others which deserve restrictions or discouragement. Moreover the items of import & export value and volume of the same, the corresponding time period, sources of fund far payment and receipt, all these factors are to be considered very carefully for making necessary adjustment to match with the national economic policies as well as achieve balanced economic growth through the interpolicy and interpolicy co-ordination.

International trade policy relates to commercial policy which has two main components of Import policy relates to commercial policy which has two main components of Import policy and Export policy. With a view to achieving favorable balance of payment position as well as to encouraging or well to encouraging or well regulated and need based foreign trade of the country, the government formulates the national commercial policy i.e. import and export policy for a certain period considering all the favorable & unfavorable aspects of the nation's previous trade performance as well as the future requirement and prospects.

As the policy matter and the operational of import & export trade are quite different, two separate policies for import & export trade are formulated by the government. Import policy refers to government policies account for a particular fiscal period envisaging the allocation of fund available from various sources for import of certain quantity of certain goods. The main purpose of the policy is to conserve scare foreign exchange & to ensure its utilization for the import of goods and services which have national priority. The selected persons on institutions those who have got valid Import Registration Certificate (IRC) form the Chief Controller of Import and Export (CCI & E) can import and they are known as importers.

These importers can import goods as entitled in each year as per import policy by opening letter of credit (L/C) through bank i.e. Authorized Dealer (A.D). Authorized Dealer means the branches of commercial banks, those who are authorized / licensed by the Bangladesh Bank to deal in foreign Exchange. Letter of Credit may be defined as the letter as the letter of undertaking or letter of guarantee issued by the L/C opening bank on behalf of the importer submits all the documents as mentioned in the L/C submits all the documents as mentioned in the L/C within the time schedule to his bank i.e. exporters bank.

Before opening L/C in favour of the exporter the entitlement of the importer (total amount in taka he can import as per import policy) to be registered with Bangladesh Bank. For this purpose the importer is to apply through L/C. Authorization form (LC A form). This is a set in quintuplicate and the authorized dealer will issue LCA form to the individual importer at their request. After filled up and signed up the appropriate column of the LCA from, the importer will submit it to Authorized Dealer who inturn forward the same to Bangladesh Bank for registration where fund is purchased from Bangladesh Bank. After registration Bangladesh Bank forward the 1st and 2nd copy of LCA form to the Authorized Dealer, 3rd and 4th copy to CCI & E and keep the 5th copy as their office copy. 1st copy of LCA is known as Exchange Control copy against which Authorized Dealer can open L/C at the request of the importer. 2nd Copy is known as custom purpose copy which will be handed over to the importer who will clear the goods from the port on its arrival through this custom purpose copy of LCA along with other shipping documents.


Open an L/C by the Importer

Now the importer will come to his bank with a request to open an L/C along with the following documents / papers :-

1) L/C application and agreement Form (Bank's prescribed application form) with adhesive stamp of Tk. 150 (Flexible) [From June 3rd 1998]
2) Indent / Proforma Invoice / Contract - 3 copies.
3) Insurance cover note with premium paid receipt.
4) IMP From one set duly signed by the importer.
5) Any other documents if necessary.

Authorized Dealer will scrutinize the documents and open the L/C infavour of the exporter by converting the Bangladesh Taka into foreign currency at the existing B.C selling rate of exchange. Care must be taken so that the limit of Bangladesh Taka is not exceeded in any way. The foreign currency value of the L/C must correspond the equivalent amount of Bangladesh Taka if LCA registered with Bangladesh Bank.

The Authorized Official of the Authorized Dealer will check the L/C very carefully and signed the same jointly and forward the 1st and 2nd copy to their foreign correspondent situated at the nearest place of the exporter. Thus Bank is known as Advising Bank. On receipt of the L/C the Advising Bank after verification of the duplicate copy at their end.

On getting the L/C the exporter prepares the goods and ship the same as per instruction of the L/C and obtain a Bill or Lading from the shipping Authority. The exporter will prepare Bill of Exchange, Invoice and other documents as specified in the L/C and submits the same along with the original copy L/C to his bank within the time mentioned in the L/C. The Bank with whom the exporter submits the documents is known as Negotiating Bank as this negotiates the documents i.e. makes payment to the exporters.

The negotiating bank will scrutinize the documents with terms and conditions of the L/C very carefully. If every thing is in order the bank will make payment of the amount of L/C to exporter in their local currency by debiting to their own account. Subsequently the negotiating bank will claim the L/C with whom the Head Office of L/C opening bank maintained foreign currency amount.

This is known as Reimbursing Bank. Reimbursing Bank will make payment to the negotiating bank by debit to L/C opening Bank's Head Office A/C. Simultaneously the negotiating bank will forward all the documents submitted by the exporter to the L/C opening bank as per instruction of the L/C. The date of forwarding letter of negotiating bank should be date of negotiation of documents.

On receipt of the shipping documents from the negotiating bank, the L/C opening bank will carefully scrutinize the documents with terms and conditions of the relative L/C. If there is no discrepancy, the documents will be lodged. Lodgment of documents means the entry of the particulars of the documents in the Register and preparation of vouchers by converting the foreign currency amount into Bangladesh Taka as the exchange rate prevailing on that date. This amount is due to the importer. The importer will be asked to take delivery documents by making payment of the bill amount excluding the margin deposited at the time of opening L/C. Payment of bill amount and to take delivery of documents by the importers is known as Retirement of Import Bills.

After taking delivery of documents from the L/C opening bank, the importer will clear the goods which has already been arrived or due to arrive from the customs authority on submission of these documents along with the custom purpose copy of LCA From.


LODGMENT AND RETIREMENT OF IMPORT BILLS

CHAPTER - FOUR
LODGMENT AND RETIREMENT OF IMPORT BILLS
(UNDER CASH L/C)

4.1 LODGMENT OF IMPORT BILL

The documentary letter of credit (L/C) constitutes of the important methods of financing trade. Because of the phenomenal growth in world trade and commodity wise diversification of trade its importance has significantly increased.

On receipt of the documents from the negotiating Bank, the L/C opening bank will make entry the particulars of the documents into Inward Foreign Bill Register and prepare the voucher by converting the foreign currency into Bangladesh Taka. This stage is known as lodgment of import bills.

The full sets of documents which are submitted by the exporter to his bank as per terms and conditions of the L/C is known as shipping documents.

The L/C opening bank may receive these shipping documents from his foreign correspondent (Bank) in two ways.

i) Documents on collections basis.
ii) Negotiated Documents.

i) Documents on collection Basis :-

The shipping documents which are not negotiable by the exporter's bank due to some discrepancies will be sent to L/C opening bank on collection basis. The collection bank (exporter's bank) will mention the discrepancies on their forwarding schedule.

On receiving the documents the L/C opening bank will further scrutinize the documents with the L/C and inform the importer regarding discrepancies found in the documents. If these are acceptable to the importer and or permissible with the existing exchange control Regulation, the documents will be lodged and L/C opening bank will send the payment instruction to the collecting bank.

ii) Negotiated Documents

The documents which has already been negotiated i.e. the exporters bank (this bank is known as negotiating bank) has made payment to the exporter against the documents submitted by him may be termed as negotiated documents. Generally these documents are free from discrepancies. Though these documents are supposed to be free from any discrepancy, the L/C opening bank must scrutinize and confirm that there is no discrepancy in the documents.

Incase of documents which has no discrepancy and documents with minor discrepancy (if accepted by the importer) are to be lodged, where the major discrepancy is found, it is the duty of the L/C opening banks to send a cable / Telex to the negotiating bank with instruction to credit the amount to the L/C opening banks A/C which was paid to the exporter, because the documents are not accepted and also to seek instruction regarding disposal of the documents. The particulars of these documents to be entered is separate column or separate Inward Foreign Bill Register under the head Foreign Bill under Reserve.

4.2 PROCEDURES OF LODGMENT

After scrutinization, if it is fund in order the officer concerned will brand a rubber stamp "Checked and Found Correct" which will be followed by his initial.

Amount in foreign currency to be converted into Bangladesh Taka with the exchange rate (B.C selling) prevailing on the date of lodgment.
Particulars of documents to be entered in the "Inward Foreign Bills Register"

Preparation of Vouchers : The following vouchers are to be prepared :-
a) Lodgment voucher :
Dr. PAD / Draft amount + Negotiation commission (if any)
Cr. H.O, I.D / (Reimbursing Bank) A/C

B) Liability voucher to be reversed which was originated at the time of opening L/C
Dr. Barkers liability on L/C (Cash)
Cr. Customers liability on L/C (Cash)


RETIREMENT OF DOCUMENTS

4.3 RETIREMENT OF DOCUMENTS

On receipt of the copy of lodgment voucher from the bank, the importer will deposit the required amount and taka delivery of the shipping documents. This stage is known as Retirement of Impart Bills.

Before retirement of impart bills, the L/C opening bank will calculate the charges which are to be realized from the importer.

Retirement vouchers to be prepared :
Dr. Opener A/C
Dr. Sunday Deposit A/C (Margin on L/C)
Cr. PAD / Draft Amount
Any other charges vouchers if necessary.

4.4 SCRUTINY OF DOCUMENTS

The L/C opening bank being received the documents from the negotiated bank will scrutinize the documents with the respective L/C terms and condition.

i) Forwarding schedule of Negotiating Bank

- Whether there is any instruction.
- Whether these instruction can be complied with.
- whether the negotiating commission realised.

ii) Bill of Exchange (Draft)
- Whether it is drawn in order.
- Whether the amount of draft corresponds with the L/C amount.
- Draft amount should be equal or less than the L/C amount.
- whether the date of the draft of the within the date as per L/C etc.

iii) Bill of Lading (B/L)
- Whether the B/L is clean i.e. there is no clause like some cartons are broken or any other clause.
- Whether there is signature of shipping Authority.
- Whether the date of B/L is within the date of shipment as per L/C.
- Whether the freight is prepared or not as per L/C terms.
- Whether the part of shipment and part of destination are similar as per L/C.
- Whether the title of B/L belongs to L/C opening bank.

- Whether the full sets of B/L dispatched by negotiating bank etc.

iv) Commercial Invoice
- Whether the full particulars of goods have been incorporated.
- Whether the amount of invoice corresponds with the amount of Bill of Exchange and as per the L/C terms.
- Whether IRC No. LCA No etc. have been incorporated.
- Whether it is signed by the beneficiary.

v) Other Documents
- Whether all other documents are prepared as per L/C.

After scrutinization, the official concerned may found the following :-
i) Documents are in order i.e. no discrepancy.
ii) Minor discrepancy-Acceptable to the importer.
iii) Major discrepancy-May be acceptable to the Regulation or those are irremovable.

After performing necessary formalities & entry in respective registers documents to be handed over to theimporter on proper acknowledgement after certification and endorsement of the documents.

4.5 MONTHLY RETURN
On the last working day of the month returns of bills lodged during the month through IMP From to be sent to Foreign Exchange Department, Bangladesh Bank.

4.6 DISPOSAL OF IMP FORM

Original = From L/C opening bank to Bangladesh Bank after lodgemtn of documents.

Duplicate = To be filled by the L/C opening bank with exchange control copy of Bill of Entry submitted by the importer after clearance of the goods from the customs authority.

Triplicate = Office copy of L/C opening bank.

Quadruplicate = From L/C opening to Bangladesh Bank if the importer does retire the documents.


LOAN AGAINST IMPORTED MERCHANDISE - LIM

CHAPTER - FIVE
LOAN AGAINST IMPORTED MERCHANDISE - LIM
(POST  IMPORT FINANCE)

5.1 DEFINITION OF LIM

Import Finance plays vital role in a country's foreign trade business. Import of goods and service are needed no only for export production but also to supply domestic industry with the necessary inputs which are not locally available or available at uneconomic cost and are needed for expansion and development.

Loan Against Imported Merchandise (LIM) is a facility provided by the bank to the importers who are in shortage of fund to retire the import bills and thus to clear the goods from the post authority. In other works it may be referred as an advance against merchandise.

5.2 CASES OF LIM ACCOUTN

LIM Accounts may be created in the following two cases :-

a) LIM Account on importer's request.
b) Forced LIM Account.

a) LIM Account in importer's request

After lodgment of documents, the importers concerned to be intimated for early retirement of the documents by paying outstanding bill amount including other charge. If the importer is not in a position to retire the bill out of his own sources at that moment may request the bank to clear the goods by creating LIM Account. On receipt of the importer request the official of the import bills section will prepare an office note by calculating the total landed cost of the consignment. To ascertain the landed cost the following points to be considered.

Efforts should be taken so that at least 20% to 30% margin of the landed cost may realise from the importer. Realization of margin will depend on the banker customer relationship and also on the marketability of the goods.

The following charge documents have to executed by the importer :-

i) DP Note (Demand Promissory note).
ii) Letter of Arrangement.
iii) Letter of Disbursement.
iv) Letter of pledge.
v) Any other document of necessary.

The branch Manager are not empowered to sanction the LIM A/Cs in favour of the importers for clearance the goods without obtaining the approval from Head Office.

On getting approval from Head Office on the Office Note the branch will send the documents to the port city branch by indorsing the bill of lading infavour of them with certification of invoice for clearance the goods through importer's nominated as well as Bank's approval C & F agent. In the forwarding letter clear instructions to be given for dispatching the goods either by train or by truck duly insured Branch Managers will have to take prior approval from International Division, Head Office to create LIM Account in favour of importers. Before sending the documents to the port city branch and under taking on prescribed from with special adhesive stamp of Tk. 80/- (Flexible) regarding the stipulated period sanctioned to the importer to be obtained.

The following accounting entries and vouchers are generally to be passed in the set of Retirement Vouchers on the same day at the branch :-

Dr. Customer A/C
Dr. LIM
Cr. IBTA / Pay order
Cr. PAD

The particulars of LIM A/C must be entered and voucher to be posted in the LIM Register.

After clearance, the goods should be stared either in Bank's go down or in importer's go down under bank's lock and key and the particulars of goods to be entered in the space provided in the LIM Register. At the same time issuance of goods covering fire and other risk to be made. Go down staff salary, go down rent (if the goods stored at the Bank's go down) and other miscellaneous charges in connection with the LIM A/C will be paid by debit to party's LIM A/C under advice to the importer.


DISPOSAL OF LIM STOCKS

b) Forced Lim Account

Immediately after lodgment of documents the branch incumbent and concerned dealing official shall vigorously persue importers far retirement of bills. PAD should not remain outstanding fare more than 30 days from the date of lodgment on as per norms.

If the party fails to retire the documents within 30 days or within the date of arrival of ship which ever is earlier the branch should sent the documents for clearance the goods. Other formalities in connection with the forced LIM A/C will be the same as in the case of LIM A/C created on importer's request.

No further L/C's of the party for whom the bank was forced to clean the consignment and the party failed to take delivery of the goods within the time specified below under the head disposal of LIM stocks should be opened without prior approval from Head Office even if the same is within the discretionary power of branch Manager.

5.3 DISPOSAL OF LIM STOCKS

a) The LIM liability should be adjusted within a maximum period of 45 days from the date of storage for commercial importer and 60 days for industrial importers. (It may very as per circular)

b) Part delivery against payment may also be allowed if so desired by the party to clear the LIM liability within the aforesaid time, after recovery margin over the landed cost if possible, but such payment should be proportionate with outstanding LIM liability taking into account the interest, go down rent and other charges up to eventual date of final delivery. This should be so arranged that with the last delivery the entire LIM liability is fully adjusted. Special care should however to taken to protect bank's interest in case where all the packets / bundles are not of equal size quality and price.

c) Additional 30 days may be allowed to both commercial and industrials, if    so approached by them for final adjustment. In the event of importer's failure to lift the goods on payment of bank's dues in full even within the extended period of 30 days, the following steps shall be taken by the branch incumbent :

i) Final notice shall be issued on importer's giving 15 days time for payment.

ii) Incase on response is received from importer legal notice shall be served on the party giving another 15 days time for payment.

iii) In case the concerned borrowers do not liquidate the liability within the stipulated time limit, but come forward with prayer for further time, in such cases branch incumbents may allow further 30 days time only provided he is satisfied that importer will be in a position to repay the outstanding dues within the extended period under advice to Head Office.

iv) In case the party fails to liquidate their liability within the extended time granted as mentioned in the proceeding paras the goods should be disposed off in public auction.

v) For disposal of the import consignment, a Disposal Committee shall be constituted by Head Office on receipt of a report form Branch incumbent that the consignment need to be disposal off by public auction as per Head Office standing instruction. The Disposal Committee shall be concerned with the Head Office  as Chairman, Manager of main Branch and Manager of concerned branch or as decided by the H.O.

vi) A notice for public auction of the goods, should be published by the Disposal Committee at least in two National Dailies (one Bengali and English). In all cases of public auction required earnest money shall be 5% to be fixed by Head Office of the quoted amount in the farm of Demand Draft / Payment Order. This condition must invariably be mentioned in the public notice inviting quotations for sale of import consignments. The Disposal Committee should open the tenders and select the highest bidder.

vii) The committee may also reject the highest offer if the price quoted is less than the normal market price and shall immediately call for fresh tenors.

viii) It there be any shortfall after disposal of goods, a case should be filed for the recovery of the short full amount, in the court of law immediately against the importer / guarantor concerned under intimation to Head Office.

ix) The branches shall invariably send monthly LIM statement on the prescribed form duly filled in as usual to Head Office (ID)

5.4   LETTER OF TRUST (LTR)

By executing the standard letter of trust (or trust receipt) the customer acknowledges receipt of the documents of tittle to the goods, as the case may be and agrees to hold them and the relative goods, when delivery thereof is taken by him, in trust as agents for the bank until the goods are sold or used for the express purpose for which they were released to him. The customer also undertakes to keep the transaction separate and assign and deposit with the bank the sale proceeds immediately realization but in any case not later than time period stipulated in the letter. Further, the customer undertakes to keep the goods insured and in the event the goods or may part thereof cannot be used by him for the declared purpose or on demand being made by the bank for the return of the documents / goods, he promised to restore the goods or documents to the bank's custody. The trust receipt, thus, enables the importer customer to take re-delivery of the documents pledged to the pledge bank.


Motivation

CHAPTER SIX
Motivation

6.1 Introduction:

Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need. Individuals strive - both cimsciously and subconsciously - to reduce this tension through behavior that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve them of the stress  they feel . The specific goals they select and the patterns  of action they undertake to achieve their goals are the results of individual thinking and learning. Figure 4-1 presents a modal of the motivational process . It portrays motivation as a state of need -induced tension that exerts a "push" on the individual to engage in behavior that he or she expects will gratify a need and thus reduce the tension. Whether gratification is actually achieved depends on the course of action being pursued. (If a high school girl expects to become a great tennis player by wearing the same brand of sneakers that Jennifer Capriati wears, she is likely to be disappointed;if she is likely to be disappointed; if she takes tennis lessons and practices diligently, she may succeed.)

The specific courses of action that consumers pursue and their special goals are selected on the basis of their thinking processes (i.e., cognition) and previous learning. For that reason, marketers who understand motivational theory attempt to influence the consumer's cognitive processes.

6.2 Motivation & Organizational Growth

Various groups provide specific challenges in terms of motivation. In this section we want to focus on how to apply motivation concepts in this chapter, which is the related with organizational growth.

( I ) Motivating Professionals
In contrast to a generation ago, the typical employee today is more likely to be a highly trained professional with a college degree than a blue-collar factory worker. These professionals receive a great deal of intrinsic satisfaction from their work. They tend to be well paid. So what, if any, special concerns should you be aware of when trying to motivate a team of engineers at Intel, a software designer at Microsoft, or a group of CPAs at Prime Waterhouse ?

Professionals are typically diferent from nonprofessionals.68 They have a strong and long- term commitment to their field of expertise. Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer. To keep current in their field, they need to regularly update their knowledge, and their commitment to their profession means they rarely define their work week in terms of 8 to 5 and five days a week.

What motivates professionals ? Money and promotions typically are low on their priority list. Why ? They tend to be ranked high. They like to tackle problems and find solutions. Their chief reward in their job is the work itself. Professionals also value support. They want others to think what they're working on is important. Although this may be true for all employees, because professionals tend to be more focused on their work as their central life interest, nonprofessionals typically have other interests outside of work that can compensate for needs not met on the job.

The foregoing description implies a few guidelines to keep in mind if you're trying to motivate professionals. Provide them with ongoing challenging projects. Give them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work in ways that they find productive. Reward them with educational opportunities - training, workshop, attending conferences - that allow them to keep current in their field. Also reward them with recognition, and ask questions and engage in other actions that demonstrate to them you're sincerely interested in what they're doing.
An increasing number of companies are creating alternative career paths for their professional / technical people, allowing employee to earn more money and status, without assuming managerial responsibilities. At Merck & Co. IBM, and AT&T, the best scientists, and researchers gain titles such as fellow and senior scientist. Their pay and prestige are comparable to those of managers but without the corresponding authority or responsibility.


Motivating Workers

i) Motivating Contingent Workers

We noted in chapter 1 that one of the more comprehensive changes taking place in or organizations is the addition of temporary or contingent employees As downsizing has eliminated of "permanent" jobs, an increasing number of new openings are for part-time, contract, and other forms of temporary workers. For instance, in 1995, approximately 6 million Americans, or the contingent workforce.70 These contingent employees don't have the security or stability that permanent employees have. As such, they don't identify with the organization or display the commitment that other employees do. Temporary workers also are typically provided with little or no health care, pensions, or similar benefits.

There is no simple solution for motivating temporary employees. For that small set of temps who prefer the freedom of their temporary status - some students, working mothers, seniors - the lack of stability may not be an issue. Additionally, temporariness might be preferred by those highly compensated doctors, engineers, accountants, and financial planners who don't want the demands of a stable job. But these are the exceptions. For the most part, temporary employees are so involuntarily.

What will motivate involuntarily temporary employees ? An obvious answer is the opportunity for permanent status. In those cases where permanent employees are selected from the pool of temporaries, temporaries will often work hard in hopes of becoming permanent. A less obvious answer is the opportunity for training. The ability of a temporary employee to find a new job is largely dependent on his or her skills. If the employee sees that the job he or she is doing for you can help develop salable skills, then motivation is increased. From an equity standpoint, you should also consider the repercussions of mixing permanent and temporary workers where pay differentials are significant. When temps work alongside permanent employees who earn more, and get benefits too, for doing the same job, the performance of temps is likely to suffer. Separating such employees or converting all employees to a variable-pay or skill-based pay plan might help lessen this problem.

ii) Motivating the Diversified Workforce

Not everyone is motivated by money. Not everyone wants a challenging job. The needs of women, singles, immigrants, the physically disabled, senior citizens, and others from diverse groups are not the same as a white American male with three dependents. A couple of examples can make this point clearer. Employees who are attending college typically place a high value on flexible work schedules. Such individuals may be attracted to organizations that offer flexible work hours, job sharing, or temporary assignments. A father may prefer to work the midnight to 8 A.M. shift in order to spend time with his children during the day when his wife is at work.

If you're going to maximize your employees' motivation, you've got to understand and respond to this diversity. How ? The key word to guide you should be flexibility. Be ready to design work schedules, compensation plans, benefits, physical work settings, and the like to reflect your employees' varied needs. This might include offering child and elder care, flexible work hours, and job sharing for employees with family responsibilities. It also might include offering flexible leave policies for immigrants who want occasionally to make extensive return trips to their homelands, or creating work teams for employees who come from countries with a string collectivist orientation, or allowing employees who are going to school to vary their work schedules from semester to semester.            

iii) Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers

One of the most challenging motivation problems in industries such as retailing and fast food is: How do you motivate individuals who are making very low wages and who have little opportunity to significantly increase their pay in either their current jobs or through promotions ? These jobs are typically skilled with people who have limited education and skills, and pay levels are little above minimum wage.

Traditional approaches for motivating these people have focused on providing more flexible work schedules and filling these jobs with teenagers and retirees  whose financial needs are less. This has met with less than enthusiastic results. For instance, turnover rates of 200 percent or more are not uncommon for businesses like McDonald's. Taco Bell, PepsiCo's Mexican fast-food chain, has tried to make some of its service jobs more interesting and challenging but with limited results.72 It has experimented with incentive pay and stock options for cashiers and cooks. These employees also have been given broader responsibility for inventory, scheduling, and hiring. But over a four year period, this experiment has only reduced annual turnover from 223 percent to 160 percent.

What choices are left ? Unless pay and benefits are significantly increased, high turnover probably has to be expected in these jobs. This can be somewhat offset by widening the recruiting net, making these jobs more appealing, and raising pay levels. You might also try some nontraditional approaches as well. To illustrate, Judy Wicks has found that celebrating employees outside interests has dramatically cut turnover among waiters at her White Dog Cafe in Philadelphia.73 For instance, to help create a close and family-like work climate, Wicks sets aside one night a year where employees exhibit their art, read their poetry, explain their volunteer work, and introduce their new babies.

iv) Motivating People Doing Highly Repetitive Tasks

Our final category considers employees who do standardized and repetitive jobs. For instance, working on an assembly line or transcribing court reports are jobs that workers often find boring and even stressful.

Motivating individuals in these jobs can be made easier through careful selection. People vary in their tolerance for ambiguity. Many individuals prefer jobs that have a minimal amount of discretion  and variety. Such individuals are obviously a better match to standardized jobs than individuals with strong needs for growth and autonomy. Standardized jobs should also be the first considered for automation.

Many standardized jobs, especially in the manufacturing sector, pay well. This makes it relatively easy to fill vacancies. While high pay can ease recruitment problems and reduce turnover, it doesn't necessarily lead to highly motivated workers. And realistically, there are jobs that don't readily lend themselves to being made more

challenging and interesting or to being redesigned. Some tasks, for instance, are just far more efficiently done on assembly lines than in teams. This leaves limited options. You may not be able to do much more than try to make a bad situation tolerable by creating a pleasant work climate. This might include providing clean and attractive work surroundings these breaks, and empathetic supervisors.


Conclusion & Bibliography

6.3 Motivation for Letter of Credit Operation Specially Prime Bank Ltd.

Prime Bank Ltd. has committed to Boost up the export position and diminishes the import position, raising of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) maximizing the national growth & abolishing the unemployment percent of a educated sector of the nation.

All the brunches of Prime Bank Limited are authorized dealer of Foreign Exchange Business. The authorized dealer motivate the importer to import Raw materials, Fabrics, Accessories, Chemicals, Vegetable Fat etc.             
 
The import or export are motivated by the Prime Bank Limited to the foreign exchange business, particularly to open the letter of credit. A letter credit offer advantages both to the importer and exporter. The advantages accuring to either of the parties differ depending upon the nature of credit opened There Certain Common benefit accuring from the use of credit as under.

Advantages to the Importers :

i) Ability : The letter of credit enables the importer of purchase materials (particularly in sellers market) without making full advance payment.         
ii) Assurance : If the importer task certain safe guards, like calling for packing list, invoice ate, the quality and quantity of the goods consigned is assured.
iii) Without Payment : Prided the buyer has buying credit with the Prime Bank he may get goods released by the Bank under trust (e.s. LTR, LIM etc), i.e without payment and pay for then on sale.

Advantages of the Exporters :

i) Undertaking : A superior undertaking of the bank under the letter of credit assures the importer that when the documents are tendered as per the turns of the credit payment would be made to him.
ii) Controlling : The exporter is absolved of the botheration of knowing in details the exchange control regulations of the importer country and is also increased to some extent against charges in such regulations.

 

CONCLUSION

Modern Commercial Banking is exacting business. The reward are modest, the penalties for bad looking are enormous. And Commercial bank's are great monetary institutions, important to the general welfare of the economy more than any other financial institution. It has a vastly sobering and exacting responsibility.

Prime Bank Limited (PBL) playing a vital role in financing import and exports of the country. Without Bank's co-operation, it is not possible to run any business or production activity in this age. Exports and import need finance in various stages of their activities. Export and import financing are letter of credit (L/C), payment against documents (PAD), loan against imported merchandise (LIM) etc. All these facilities are provided by PBL. For this purpose Bank's consider the borrower's business standing, integrity, liability with the bank term and conditions of the L/C. There are lot of risks involved in foreign business. So, the Prime Bank Limited (PBL) have to clearly justify the customers from a neutral point and gather the current information about the market.

Bibliography

1. Transactions in foreign exchange : Principles and practices
-    M.A. Yousuf & M.R. Sinha

2. Foreign exchange & exchange control
-     V.V. Keshkamat

3. Foreign exchange and financing of foreign trade
-     Syed Ashraf Ali

4. PBL's Annual Report 1995 To 1999.

5. Foreign Exchange
- C. Jeevanandam

6. Organizational Behavior
- John W. Newstrom and Keith Davis

7. Personnel / Human Resource Management
- David A. De-cenzo 
- Stephen P. Robbins


Conclusion & Bibliography

6.3 Motivation for Letter of Credit Operation Specially Prime Bank Ltd.

Prime Bank Ltd. has committed to Boost up the export position and diminishes the import position, raising of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) maximizing the national growth & abolishing the unemployment percent of a educated sector of the nation.

All the brunches of Prime Bank Limited are authorized dealer of Foreign Exchange Business. The authorized dealer motivate the importer to import Raw materials, Fabrics, Accessories, Chemicals, Vegetable Fat etc.             
 
The import or export are motivated by the Prime Bank Limited to the foreign exchange business, particularly to open the letter of credit. A letter credit offer advantages both to the importer and exporter. The advantages accuring to either of the parties differ depending upon the nature of credit opened There Certain Common benefit accuring from the use of credit as under.

Advantages to the Importers :

i) Ability : The letter of credit enables the importer of purchase materials (particularly in sellers market) without making full advance payment.         
ii) Assurance : If the importer task certain safe guards, like calling for packing list, invoice ate, the quality and quantity of the goods consigned is assured.
iii) Without Payment : Prided the buyer has buying credit with the Prime Bank he may get goods released by the Bank under trust (e.s. LTR, LIM etc), i.e without payment and pay for then on sale.

Advantages of the Exporters :

i) Undertaking : A superior undertaking of the bank under the letter of credit assures the importer that when the documents are tendered as per the turns of the credit payment would be made to him.
ii) Controlling : The exporter is absolved of the botheration of knowing in details the exchange control regulations of the importer country and is also increased to some extent against charges in such regulations.

 

CONCLUSION

Modern Commercial Banking is exacting business. The reward are modest, the penalties for bad looking are enormous. And Commercial bank's are great monetary institutions, important to the general welfare of the economy more than any other financial institution. It has a vastly sobering and exacting responsibility.

Prime Bank Limited (PBL) playing a vital role in financing import and exports of the country. Without Bank's co-operation, it is not possible to run any business or production activity in this age. Exports and import need finance in various stages of their activities. Export and import financing are letter of credit (L/C), payment against documents (PAD), loan against imported merchandise (LIM) etc. All these facilities are provided by PBL. For this purpose Bank's consider the borrower's business standing, integrity, liability with the bank term and conditions of the L/C. There are lot of risks involved in foreign business. So, the Prime Bank Limited (PBL) have to clearly justify the customers from a neutral point and gather the current information about the market.

Bibliography

1. Transactions in foreign exchange : Principles and practices
-    M.A. Yousuf & M.R. Sinha

2. Foreign exchange & exchange control
-     V.V. Keshkamat

3. Foreign exchange and financing of foreign trade
-     Syed Ashraf Ali

4. PBL's Annual Report 1995 To 1999.

5. Foreign Exchange
- C. Jeevanandam

6. Organizational Behavior
- John W. Newstrom and Keith Davis

7. Personnel / Human Resource Management
- David A. De-cenzo 
- Stephen P. Robbins