6.1 Introduction:

Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need. Individuals strive - both cimsciously and subconsciously - to reduce this tension through behavior that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve them of the stress  they feel . The specific goals they select and the patterns  of action they undertake to achieve their goals are the results of individual thinking and learning. Figure 4-1 presents a modal of the motivational process . It portrays motivation as a state of need -induced tension that exerts a "push" on the individual to engage in behavior that he or she expects will gratify a need and thus reduce the tension. Whether gratification is actually achieved depends on the course of action being pursued. (If a high school girl expects to become a great tennis player by wearing the same brand of sneakers that Jennifer Capriati wears, she is likely to be disappointed;if she is likely to be disappointed; if she takes tennis lessons and practices diligently, she may succeed.)

The specific courses of action that consumers pursue and their special goals are selected on the basis of their thinking processes (i.e., cognition) and previous learning. For that reason, marketers who understand motivational theory attempt to influence the consumer's cognitive processes.

6.2 Motivation & Organizational Growth

Various groups provide specific challenges in terms of motivation. In this section we want to focus on how to apply motivation concepts in this chapter, which is the related with organizational growth.

( I ) Motivating Professionals
In contrast to a generation ago, the typical employee today is more likely to be a highly trained professional with a college degree than a blue-collar factory worker. These professionals receive a great deal of intrinsic satisfaction from their work. They tend to be well paid. So what, if any, special concerns should you be aware of when trying to motivate a team of engineers at Intel, a software designer at Microsoft, or a group of CPAs at Prime Waterhouse ?

Professionals are typically diferent from nonprofessionals.68 They have a strong and long- term commitment to their field of expertise. Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer. To keep current in their field, they need to regularly update their knowledge, and their commitment to their profession means they rarely define their work week in terms of 8 to 5 and five days a week.

What motivates professionals ? Money and promotions typically are low on their priority list. Why ? They tend to be ranked high. They like to tackle problems and find solutions. Their chief reward in their job is the work itself. Professionals also value support. They want others to think what they're working on is important. Although this may be true for all employees, because professionals tend to be more focused on their work as their central life interest, nonprofessionals typically have other interests outside of work that can compensate for needs not met on the job.

The foregoing description implies a few guidelines to keep in mind if you're trying to motivate professionals. Provide them with ongoing challenging projects. Give them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work in ways that they find productive. Reward them with educational opportunities - training, workshop, attending conferences - that allow them to keep current in their field. Also reward them with recognition, and ask questions and engage in other actions that demonstrate to them you're sincerely interested in what they're doing.
An increasing number of companies are creating alternative career paths for their professional / technical people, allowing employee to earn more money and status, without assuming managerial responsibilities. At Merck & Co. IBM, and AT&T, the best scientists, and researchers gain titles such as fellow and senior scientist. Their pay and prestige are comparable to those of managers but without the corresponding authority or responsibility.