Chapter: 1
 
INTRODUCTION
 
SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT
 
As a business expectative of future, we should have to gather experience beside our institutional education. We should not concern our lesson only in classroom but to implement it in practical life that will help us in our future life.
 
So, identify objectives is very much important. Our purpose of preparing the report is:
 
To identify and know the cost allocation methods followed in private hospitals.
To identify how the private hospitals make their cost allocations for their seat rent.
To know how the private hospitals use the cost allocation for their seat rent.
To find out how effectively they do this job.
 
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
 
Collection of data is an important part of a term paper preparation. In preparing the report we have maintained some steps. Which are given bellow —
 
Step-1: At first, we select Fortune Hospital ltd. for making our report on “Treatment of seat rents” practices of a particular organization.
 
Step-2: We went to the Fortune Hospital ltd. with group and meet with the director, doctors’, manager and other employees.
 
Step-3: Then we collect various (primary and secondary) data from the manager about the “Treatment of seat rents”
 
Step-4: Process the data through taking helpful hinds from our course teacher M. Takibur Rahman.
 
Step-5: Again analysis and interpretation the data.
 
Step-6: Then we calculate the relevant calculations.
 
Step-7: Finally, we prepared our report.
 

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
  
It was not so easy to us prepare such type of report as the following reasons was existed.
 
This report is based on treatment of overhead allocation in determination of seat rent. We don’t have sufficient knowledge about cost allocation.
 
This is a calculative and analysis based report. So it needs sufficient time. But we do not have surplus time to make such kind of analytical and calculative report.
 
As the Fortune Hospital ltd. is a private organization, the authority try to keep some information confidential. As a result we were not capable to collect the total expected information from them.
 
Although we face some limitation, we were trying our best to overcome these complexities and provide information as far as possible.
 

CHAPTER: 2 DISCUSSION
 
2.1 DEFINITION OF OVERHEAD
 
Any expenditure which cannot be charge directly to any job, operation or process may be called overhead. Thus, overhead indicates indirect expenditure of any kind. It includes indirect materials, indirect wages and indirect expenses.
 
Eric l. Kohler defined overhead as “any cost of doing business other than a direct cost of an output of product or services. He also pointed out that overhead is “a generic name for manufacturing cost of materials and services not readily identifiable with the product or services that constitute the main output of an operation. Overhead therefore, means those expenses, which cannot be allocated to any product or services (as direct cost) but can be apportioned to or absorbed by, the product or services.
 
According to H. J. Wheldon, overhead represents the cost of indirect materials, indirect labor and such other expenses including services as cannot be conveniently be charged to a specific unit. W. W. Bigg says that all indirect costs are termed as overheads. According to W. M. Harper, overheads are costs which do not result solely from the existence of individual cost unit. 
 
 
2.2 DIFFERENT NAMES OF OVERHEAD
 
Overhead has many other names such as overhead cost, overhead expense, overhead charge, manufacturing and commercial expense, indirect cost, non productive cost, supplementary expense, supplementary cost, burden, on cost, load, loading etc.
 
Sometimes distinctions are drown between these terms but such distinctions are not consistently observed. In fact, all these terms are used to mean the same thing that is overhead. 
 
2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF OVERHEAD
 
Overhead may be classified in various ways as stated below-
 
A)  Function wise classification
B)   Element wise classification
C)   Behavior wise classification
D)  Control wise classification
 
Let us discuses each of the above briefly-
 
A. Function wise classification

Every manufacturing organization has three distinct functions, they are
 
i)   Production function
ii)   Administrative function
iii)   Selling and distribution function.

Stores expenses, time office expenses, pay-roll department expenses, transport cost, super vision cost, factory clerical cost, in direct labor, personnel department expenses, factory supplies,  maintenance and repair, insurance, depreciation, canteen expenses, rent and taxes etc are the examples of production overhead. 
 
Rent, rates and taxes of administrative building, salary of the staff office connected with general administration, depreciation of office equipment and of building, postage, telegram and telephone, stationary, office expenses, director’s remuneration, bank charges etc. are the examples of administration overhead.
 
Sales men’s salary and commission, advertisement expenses, travelers commission, market research expenses are the examples of selling overhead.
 
Godown expenses in connection with storing of finish product, awaiting sale, packaging charges, loading and unloading, insurance, maintenance, and repair of delivery vans are the examples of distribution overhead.

B)  Element wise classification
 
If indirect expense are classified element wise we come across three classes
1.     Indirect materials
2.     Indirect labor
3.     Indirect expenses
 
1. Indirect materials:
 
Administration: Stationary, canteen food, cleaning materials etc.
 
Selling and distribution: Stationary, fuel etc.
 
2. Indirect labor:
 
Factory: salary of foreman, supervisors, works managers etc. wages of maintenance and repairs staff, wages of indirect workers etc.
Administration: salary of all employees of administrative function from managing director to sweeper, directors remuneration etc.
 
Selling and distribution: salary of sales officers, staff and distribution men.
 
3. Indirect expenses:
 
Factory: Repairs and maintenance, rent, rates and taxes, insurance, depreciation etc.
 
Administration: all expenses in connection with general administration.
 
Selling and distribution: Godown rent, insurance, advertisements, depreciation etc.

C) Behavior wise classification
 
Fixed overhead: Rent, rates, insurance, stationary, salary of management staff etc. 
 
Variable overhead: Indirect labor, indirect material, power, packaging, travelers, salesmen’s commission etc.
                                                         
Semi-variable or semi-fixed overhead: repairs and maintenance, depreciation, supervisors salary etc. 
 
D) Control wise classification
 
Overhead costs which can be controlled by the exercise of proper managerial influence are controllable costs and overhead costs that cannot be controlled in spite of the best exercise of managerial influence are uncontrolled labor costs.
 
2.4 METHODS OF OVERHEAD ALLOCATION
 
Service departments, by definition, don't produce marketable goods.  Their costs, therefore, have to be allocated to those departments that use the services.  From there the costs are allocated further, either to other departments or to products. There are mainly three methods for overhead allocation for service department. They are-
 
1. The direct method.
 
2. The step-down method.
 
3. The reciprocal method.
 
 
1. The direct method, which is the most widely used allocation method, allocates each service department's costs directly to the production departments, ignoring services rendered to other service departments. 
 
2. The step-down method, also widely used, allocates costs of service departments to both production and service departments.  The sequence of allocation usually begins either with the department rendering service to the greatest number of other service departments (or, alternatively, the most costly service department) and progresses all the way to the one rendering service to the smallest number of other departments (or to the least costly department).  Once a service department's costs have been allocated, no subsequent service-department costs are allocated back to it.  
 
3. The reciprocal method is the most accurate allocation method.  This method recognizes reciprocal services among service departments.  It requires solving 
a set of simultaneous linear equations. 
 
OVERVIEW OF SELECTED ORGANIZATION (FORTUNE HOSPITAL)
 
“Providing medical facilities with great care” with this objective in 2005 fortune hospital has been established in Patuakhali. As it is a private hospital, it has a objective of earning profit but their objective is “Earning profit by serving and providing maximum effort.”
 
The owner of the hospital is Dr. Fazle Rabbi, MBBS (DMC); Specialist in Neuromedicine, RMO, department of Neuromedicine, BSMMU (PG hospital),
with the co-owner ship of Dr. Shirin Akter, MBBS.
 
This hospital is a newly established hospital in Patuakhali. They are now working by taking rent a 4 stored building with a rent of Tk 24000 per month. They have four appointed doctors. Two of them are dentist and other two are of medicine. They give about Tk 12000 as remuneration (basic salary). They provide some other facilities to each doctor. For any kind of additional service, they call guest doctors from Patuakhali, Barisal as well as from Dhaka. Dr. Fazle Rabbi also visits the hospital in more than 4 times in a month.
 
They have 12 sisters and 5 words boy to serve 24 hours in the hospital by rotation. They have one manager, one accountant and two receptionists. They also have a pathologist and an electrician.
 
Fortune hospital is a 20-bed hospital. Within these 20 beds 15 is for general and 5 for the VIP patient. The seat rent is also different in these two categories. For general bed they charge Tk 150 per day and Tk 700 per day for the VIP beds.
 
They also provide outdoor facility for the patients. For this, each patient has to pay Tk 200 for service charge. Four days in a month, they provide service by the help of specialist doctors from Dhaka. 
 
Though Fortune hospital is a newly established hospital it is working well and they are now in a position of good competitor for other private clinics of Patuakhali.
 
With the help of generator, they provide 24 hours electricity.

CHAPTER: 3 CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS
 
3.1 CALCULATION OF WEIGHT OF REVENUES

 Particulars

Amount

Weight

Percentage

Outdoor revenues

864000

0.37

37%

Revenues from general beds

472500

0.20

20%

Revenues from VIP beds

525000

0.22

22%

Operation theater revenues

500000

0.21

21%

Total revenues

2361500

1.00

100%