Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of the study can be stated as follows:

To identify the changes in socio-economic conditions of the SIDR affected people in Kalapara upazilla under Patuakhali district.

To identify the re-habitation program in this SIDR affected area

Importance of the Study

Our report shows the some important issue about the impact of SIDR on the people of the southern part of Bangladesh like Patuakhali district. In its first part it shows us socio-economic factors of the SIDR affected people of Kalapara upazilla in Patuakhali district. It also shows the changes in socio-economic conditions of the SIDR affected people, which are very important for deeming about the present situation of those affected people. It also important for indentify the socio- economic background of people.

CHAPTER -2

Review of Literature

Review of literature is an attempt to search the research work relevant to the proposed research for reviewing the findings which give a proper instruction in designing the future research problem and validating the new finding. It also helps to conduct the research work successfully by providing various knowledge and information related to the proposed study. With this end in the view, literature and research works in the line with the present study, were search in the relevant libraries and research industries.

Cyclone is a tropical storm or atmospheric turbulence involving circular motion of winds, occurs in Bangladesh as a natural hazard. The tropics can be regarded as the region lying between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude. All the tropical seas of the earth with the exception of the south Atlantic and southeast Pacific give birth to deadly atmospheric phenomena known as tropical cyclones. On an average, 80 tropical cyclones are formed every year all over the globe. The term cyclone is derived from the Greek word 'kyklos' meaning coil of snakes. Bangladesh is part of the humid tropics, with the Himalayas on the north and the funnel shaped coast touching the Bay of Bengal on the south. This peculiar geography of Bangladesh brings not only the life-giving monsoons but also catastrophic cyclones, Northwesters, tornadoes and floods. The Bay of Bengal is an ideal breeding ground for tropical cyclones.

Cyclones are usually formed in the deep seas and hence their study has been very difficult. It is only with the advent of the Space age that weather satellites have provided valuable information about them. Direct studies of cyclones with aircraft reconnaissance are also being carried out by advanced countries.

The most destructive element of a cyclone is its accompanying surge. There is little that can withstand a great mass of onrushing water often as high as 6m. In Bangladesh, cyclones occur in April-May and also in September-December. On an average, five severe cyclonic storms hit Bangladesh every year and the accompanying surge can reach as far as 200 km inland. Surge-heights increase with the increase of wind speed.

The cyclone of 29 April 1991 hit Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, Barisal, Noakhali, Patuakhali, Barguna and Khulna along with a tidal bore (6.1m to 7.6m), killing 140,000 people.

Professors A.M. M. Safiullah, Vice chancellor of BUET to take initiatives to conduct such study in the SIDR affected area like Patuakhali. Professor Rejaur Rahman, Dr. Md Mansurul Amin, Dr. Md Shahidur Rahman Khan and Dr. Md AlimulIslam jointly presented the keynote paper titled ‘Field Investigation on the Impact of Cyclone SIDR in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh’.

Mansurul Amin, 2008, 19 May, Title: “Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR”. In his report he represents about the socio-economic conditions of the SIDR affected people in coastal area like, Patuakhali, Borguna, Khulna, etc.

Bangladesh is part of the humid tropics, with the Himalayas on the north and the funnel- shaped coast touching the Bay of Bengal on the south. This peculiar geography of Bangladesh brings not only the life-giving monsoons but also catastrophic cyclones, Northwesters, tornadoes and floods. The Bay of Bengal is an ideal breeding ground for tropical cyclones. Cyclones are usually formed in the deep seas and hence their study has been very difficult. It is only with the advent of the Space age that weather satellites have provided valuable information about them. Direct studies of cyclones with aircraft reconnaissance are also being carried out by advanced countries. However, only a beginning has been made in Bangladesh towards the understanding of cyclones.

CHAPTER -3

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

Importance of methodology in conducting any research hardly is over emphasized. The reliability of research depends to a great extend on the appropriate methodology used in the research. Improper methodology varies often leads to an erroneous result. So, methodology in any systematic study deserves careful consideration. The researcher gave a careful consideration to flow a scientific and logical methodology for caring out this research.

Selection of the Study Area

Field research where the collection of primary is involved requires selection of an area which would offer a scope to fulfill the objective of the study. Keeping in mind the main objective of the present study, cyclone SIDR affected area KALAPARA upazilla in Patuakhali district is selected for the following reasons—

01. Most of people of this area was damaging by the cyclone SIDR

02. This area was one of the significant areas which was injurious by the cyclone SIDR

03. This area is less distance from our campus, less expensive as well as less time consuming in conducting to the study.

04. The selected area covers the sample people of both urban and rural areas.

05. The selected area covers the sample people of different group of people like, illiterate, primary, secondary, higher secondary and higher educated people.

Selection of the Sample

In a complete survey, the required information is collected from each and every elements of the population. Thus it becomes costly and time consuming. On the other hand, in a sample survey, required information is collected from selected elements only. For this reason, it has some basic advantages over complete survey in the sense that it reduces cost, saves times offer greater scope and accuracy of data. But it is necessary that the selected samples should represent a reasonable true picture of the entire population.

In this study people were randomly selected for collecting data. The selected samples consisted of 8% illiterate people, 28% primary educated people, 36% secondary educated people, 16% higher secondary educated people and 12% higher educated people. The total sample size of the present study was thus 25.

3.1: Information on Selected Sample

 Sex

Male

Female

 

 

 

 

76%

24%

 

 

 

 Family Size

Small

Medium

Large

 

 

 

24%

68%

8%

 

 

 Occupation

Service

Business

Agriculture

Fisheries

Others

 

8%

16%

12%

20%

44%

 Education

Illiterate

Primary

Secondary

Higher Secondary

Higher Education

 

8%

28%

36%

16%

12%

Preparation of Interview Schedule

Keeping in view of the objective of the study, one interview schedule was prepared to collect the expected information from consumers. Before peppering the final interview schedule, draft scheduled were pre-to verify relevance of the questions and nature of the response from consumers. After pretesting and collection, modification and adjustment, final survey scheduled were developed.

The final interview schedule contained the following major items of information—

01. Socio-economic profiles of the consumers

02. Changes in socio-economic factors such as income, occupation, education, aid, loan, etc. before cyclone SIDR and after SIDR

03. The present conditions of the SIDR affected people of Kalapara upazilla in Patuakhali district.

Collection of Data

Collection of accurate and reliable date and other necessary information from the field level is not an easy task. It must be done properly since the success of the survey depends on reliability of data. Data were collected both from primary and secondary sources for the present study. We collected primary data through direct personal interview with the respondents in the study areas. Before asking the individual question, each responded was explained in brief the aims and objective of the present study. To attain accuracy and reliability of data, care and caution were taken in the data collection. Attention was paid to the mood of the responded and a congenial relationship is maintained with them. The secondary data were collected from various sources like – internet, journals, reports, newspapers, government official reports and magazines etc. 

Period of the Study

The period of the present study is one month. Primary data for this is collected     in October- 2008. The secondary data were collected as and when necessary during the whole period of the study.

Processing and Tabulation of Data

For achieving the objectives of the study processing and tabulation are necessary. All collected primary data for the present data for the present study were coded, tabulated, summarized and processed for analysis after collection of data form field level. The first step was taken to scrutinize the data of each and every schedule to find out any inconsistency or omission in the data collection and to avoid irrelevant information. After completing the pre-tabulating task, actual tabulation was stared. Processed data were transferred to a master sheet and compiled with a view of facilitating tabulation

Analysis of Data

The data were analyzed on the basis of the objectives of the study. In the present study tabular and descriptive techniques were mainly used for analysis of data. Tabulation techniques were applied with the help of average, percentage etc. to find out the meaningful results.

Limitation Faced in Data Collection

In collection data, following problems and difficulties were faced by us—

01. There was the limitation of the time and for this, data and other necessary information had to be collected within the shortest possible time.

02. Most of the respondents in the study areas did not have an idea about a research study and it was therefore difficult to explain the purpose of this research of convince them.

03. In many occasions consumers were not available at home and in such cases, we had to give extra effort and time to collect the information from them.

04. It was difficult to collect data necessary data from the intermediaries especially in Patuakhali district, as well as Kalapara upazilla. Because, many people of those areas are not highly educated.

05. Sometime the respondent did not cooperate willingly with the researcher because they did not find any benefits to provide information to the researcher.

The data are collected by the two ways first one of them is survey is conducted with the people of SIDR affected people of Kalapara upazilla, and second on of them is Internet. The data are collected from the people by interview schedule. During the field visit the major emphasis was given on the following points while interviewing local people — Accessibility to the cyclone shelter, Socio-economic conditions, Operation throughout the year, Operation during the disaster, Dissemination of cyclone warning, Water supply and sanitation, Power supply, fuel and energy source, Damage, surge height and wind direction, Activity during disaster, Occupation of local people, Damage to livelihood, Damage to environment, Modes of local transport, Pattern of local household, Damage to vegetation, Location of neighboring cyclone shelter, Food availability, Livestock, Post disaster activities, Socio economic condition of the people before affected by cyclone SIDR and the present social economic condition of the people, Conclusions from the field interview.