NPL Account Management

All NPLs should be assigned to an Account Manager within the RU, who is responsible for coordinating and administering the action plan/recovery of the account, and should serve as the primary customer contact after the account is downgraded to substandard. Whilst some assistance from Corporate Banking/Relationship Management may be sought, it is essential that the autonomy of the RU be maintained to ensure appropriate recovery strategies are implemented. Account Transfer Procedures

Within 7 days of an account being downgraded to substandard (grade 6), a Request for Action (RFA) and a handover /downgrade checklist should be completed by the RM and forwarded to RU for acknowledgment. The account should be assigned to an account manager within the RU, who should review all documentation, meet the customer, and prepare a Classified Loan Review  Report (CLR) within 15 days of the transfer. The CLR should be  approved by the Head of Credit, and copied to the Head of Corporate Banking and to the Branch/office where the loan was originally sanctioned. This initial CLR should highlight any documentation issues, loan structuring weaknesses, proposed workout strategy, and should seek approval for any loan loss provisions that are necessary.

Recovery Units should ensure that the following is carried out when an account is classified as Sub Standard or worse:

Facilities are withdrawn or repayment is demanded as appropriate. Any drawings or advances should be restricted, and only approved after careful scrutiny and approval from appropriate executives within CRM.

CIB reporting is updated according to Bangladesh Bank guidelines and the borrower’s Risk Grade is changed as appropriate.

Loan loss provisions are taken based on Force Sale Value (FSV).

Loans are only rescheduled in conjunction with the Large Loan Rescheduling guidelines of Bangladesh Bank. Any rescheduling should be based on projected future cash flows, and should be strictly monitored.

Prompt legal action is taken if the borrower is uncooperative. Non Performing Loan (NPL) Monitoring

On a quarterly basis, a Classified Loan Review (CLR) should be prepared by the RU Account Manager to update the status of the action/recovery plan, review and assess the adequacy of provisions, and modify the bank’s strategy as appropriate. The Head of Credit sho uld approve the CLR for NPLs up to 15% of the banks capital, with MD/CEO approval needed for NPLs in excess of 15%. The CLR’s for NPLs above 25% of capital should be approved by the MD/CEO, with a copy received by the Board. NPL provisioning and Write Off

The guidelines established by Bangladesh Bank for CIB reporting, provisioning and write off of bad and doubtful debts, and suspension of interest should be followed in all cases. These requirements are the minimum, and Banks are encouraged to adopt more stringent provisioning/write off policies. Regardless of the length of time a loan is past due, provisions should be raised against the actual and expected losses at the time they are estimated. The approval to take provisions, write offs, or release of provisions/upgrade of an account should be restricted to the Head of Credit or MD/CEO based on recommendation from the Recovery Unit. The Request for Action (RFA) or CLR reporting format should be used to recommend provisions, write-offs or release/upgrades.

The RU Account Manager should determine the Force Sale Value (FSV) for accounts grade 6 or worse. Force Sale Value is generally the amount that is expected to be realized through the liquidation of collateral held as security or through the available operating cash flows of the business, net of any realization costs. Any shortfall of the Force Sale Value compared to total loan outstandings should be fully provided for once an account is downgraded to grade 7. Where the customer in not cooperative, no value should be assigned to the operating cash flow in determining Force Sale Value.  Force Sale Value and provisioning levels should be updated as and when new  information is obtained, but as a minimum, on a quarterly basis in the CLR.

Following formula is to be applied in determining the required amount of provision:

1.  Gross Outstanding                                                            XXX
2.   Less:  (i)  Cash margin held or Fixed
        Deposits /SP under lien.                                              ( XXX )
  (ii) Interest in Suspense Account                                        ( XXX )
3.   Loan Value
(For which provision is to be created before considering
estimated realizable value of other security/collateral held)      XXX
4.  Less: Estimated salvage value of security/collateral held   ( XXX )
(See Note below)
Net Loan Value                                                                     XXX

Note: The amount of required provision may, in some circumstances, be reduced by an estimated realizable forced sale value of (i.e. Salvage Value) of' any tangible collateral held (viz: mortgage of property, pledged goods / or hypothecated goods repossessed by the bank, pledged readily marketable securities etc). Hence, in these situations, it will be advisable to evaluate such collateral, estimate the most realistic sale value under duress and net-off the value against the outstanding before determining the Net Loan value for provision purposes. Conservative approach should be taken to arrive at provision requirement and Bangladesh Bank guideline to be properly followed. Incentive Program:

Banks may wish to introduce incentive programs to encourage Recovery Unit Account Managers to bring down the Non Performing Loans (NPLs). The table below shows an indicative incentive plan for RU account managers:

Recovery as a % of Principal plus interest

Recommended Incentive as % of

net recovery amount


If CG 7-8

if written off

76% to 100%



51% t0 75%



20% to 50%