The Jews in Jerusalem introduced a kind of banking in the form of money lending before the birth of Christ. The word 'bank' was probably derived from the word 'bench' as during ancient time Jews used to do money -lending business sitting on long benches.
First modern banking was introduced in 1668 in Stockholm as 'Svingss Pis Bank' which opened up a new era of banking activities throughout the European Mainland.
In the South Asian region, early banking system was introduced by the Afghan traders popularly known as Kabuliwallas. Muslim businessmen from Kabul, Afghanistan came to India and started money lending business in exchange of interest sometime in 1312 A.D. They were known as 'Kabuliwallas'.
NUMBER AND TYPES OF BANKS
The number of banks in all now stands at 49 in Bangladesh. Out of the 49 banks, four are Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), 28 local private commercial banks, 12 foreign banks and the rest five are Development Financial Institutions (DFIs).
Sonali Bank is the largest among the NCBs while Pubali is leading in the private ones. Among the 12 foreign banks, Standard Chartered has become the largest in the country. Besides the scheduled banks, Samabai (Cooperative) Bank, Ansar-VDP Bank, Karmasansthan (Employment) Bank and Grameen bank are functioning in the financial sector. The number of total branches of all scheduled banks is 6,038 as of June 2000. Of the branches, 39.95 per cent (2,412) are located in the urban areas and 60.05 per cent (3,626) in the rural areas. Of the branches NCBs hold 3,616, private commercial banks 1,214, foreign banks 31 and specialized banks 1,177.
Bangladesh Bank (BB) regulates and supervises the activities of all banks. The BB is now carrying out a reform program to ensure quality services by the banks.
Bangladesh Bank (BB) has been working as the central bank since the country's independence. Its prime jobs include issuing of currency, maintaining foreign exchange reserve and providing transaction facilities of all public monetary matters. BB is also Bangladesh Bank (BB) has been working as the central bank since the country's independence. Its prime jobs include issuing of currency, maintaining foreign exchange reserve and providing transaction facilities of all public monetary matters. BB is also responsible for planning the government's monetary policy and implementing it thereby.
The BB has a governing body comprising of nine members with the Governor as its chief. Apart from the head office in Dhaka, it has nine more branches, of which two in Dhaka and one each in Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Bogra, Sylhet, Rangpur and Barisal.
SERVICES (Accounts, FDR, PDS, Deposit Scheme)
Generally this sort of account opens for business purpose. Customers can withdraw money once or more against their deposit. No interest can be paid to the customers in this account. If the amount of deposit is below taka 1,000 on an average the bank has authority to cut taka 50 from each account as incidental charge after every six months. Against this account loan facility can be ensured. Usually one can open this account with taka 500. One can open this sort of account through cash or check/bill. All the banks follow almost the same rules for opening current account.
Savings Bank Account
Usually customers open this sort of account at a low interest for only security. This is also an initiative to create people's savings tendency. Generally, this account is to be opened at taka 100. Interest is to be paid in June and December after every six months. If money is withdrawn twice a week or more than taka 10,000 is withdrawn (if 25% more compared to total deposit) then interest is not paid. This account guarantees loan. Almost all the banks follow the same rules in the field of savings account, except foreign banks for varying deposit. On an average, all the banks give around six percent interest.
Some Banks render special services to the customers attracting other banks.
Customers need an Internet access service. As an Internet Banking customer, he will be given a specific user ID and a confident password. The customer can then view his account balances online. It is the industry-standard method used to protect communications over the Internet.
To ensure that customers' personal data cannot be accessed by anyone but them, all reporting information has been secured using Version and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Home banking frees customers of visiting branches and most transactions will be automated to enable them to check their account activities transfer fund and to open L/C sitting in their own desk with the help of a PC and a telephone.
ELECTRONIC BANKING SERVICES FOR WINDOWS (EBSW)
Electronic Banking Service for Windows (EBSW) provides a full range of reporting capabilities, and a comprehensive range of transaction initiation options.
The customers will be able to process all payments as well as initiate L/Cs and amendments, through EBSW. They will be able to view the balances of all accounts, whether with Standard Chartered or with any other banks using SWIFT. Additionally, transactions may be approved by remote authorization even if the approver is out of station.
AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM)
Automated Teller Machine (ATM), a new concept in modern banking, has already been introduced to facilitate subscribers 24 hour cash access through a plastic card. The network of ATM installations will be adequately extended to enable customers to non-branch banking beyond banking.
Tele Banking allows customers to get access into their respective banking information 24 hours a day. Subscribers can update themselves by making a phone call. They can transfer any amount of deposit to other accounts irrespective of location either from home or office.
Swift is a bank owned non-profit co-operative based in Belgium servicing the financial community worldwide. It ensures secure messaging having a global reach of 6,495 Banks and Financial Institutions in 178 countries, 24 hours a day. SWIFT global network carries an average 4 million message daily and estimated average value of payment messages is USD 2 trillion.
Swift is a highly secured messaging network enables Banks to send and receive Fund Transfer, L/C related and other free format messages to and from any banks active in the network.
Having SWIFT facility, Bank will be able to serve its customers more profitable by providing L/C, Payment and other messages efficiently and with utmost security. Especially it will be of great help for our clients dealing with Imports, Exports and Remittances etc.
MONETARY & CREDIT POLICY:
The monetary and credit policy for the financial year that ended in June, 2000 was formulated with the objective of full utilization of domestic resources and rapid economic growth through priorities for agriculture, industry, export, and expansion and strengthening of the private sector, at the same time keeping inflation within tolerable limits. A modern expansionary monetary and credit policy was adopted in order to make good the losses to agriculture, industry, and infrastructure by the devastating floods of 1998. After the flood the economy remained sluggish in the first quarter of 1999-2000 and the private sector demand for credit shrank. In view of this, the Annual Development Program (ADP) was expanded and development activities in the private sector were geared up. As a result, the public sector absorbed credit at an accelerated rate. Though credit to the private sector picked up towards the end of the year, the overall annual growth was smaller than programmed, although gross domestic credit expanded a little faster than projected. Money supply increased by 15.3% in 1999-2000 compared to the expansion of 8.6% in the preceding year.
Narrow Money increased by Tk. 2,631.90 crores or 15.3% to Tk.19881.30 crores in 1999-2000. Of the components of Narrow Money, currency outside banks went up by Tk.1489.40 crores or 17.2% to Tk.10176.00 crores, and demand deposits went up by Tk.1142.50 crores or 13.3% to Tk.9705.30 crores.
Broad Money increased by Tk.11735.70 crores or 18.6% to Tk. 74,762.40 crores in 1999-2000 compared to the increase of 12.8% in the preceding year. Of the components of Broad Money, Narrow Money increased by 15.3% and time deposits rose by 19.9% compared to the increase of 8.6% in Narrow Money and 14.5% in time deposits in the preceding year. The shares of currency outside banks, demand deposits and time deposits in Broad Money stood at 13.6%, 13.0%, and 73.4% respectively on 30th June, 2000 compared to 13.8%, 13.6% and 72.6% respectively on 30th June, 1999. Expansion of credit to the private sector, government sector (net), public sector, and other assets (net), along with a surplus in net foreign assets contributed to the expansion of Broad Money.
Reserve Money increased by Tk.2321.80 crores or 15.7% to Tk.17064.50 crores in 1999-2000 compared to the increase of 8.3% during the preceding year. Of the components of Reserve Money, currency outside banks increased by Tk.1489.40 crores or 17.1% compared to the increase of Tk.533.30 crores or 6.5% during the preceding year. Scheduled banks balances with the Bangladesh Bank increased by Tk.770.90 crores or 15.3% in 1999-2000 compared to the increase of Tk.488.20 crores or 10.8% in the preceding year. Their cash in tills increased by Tk.61.50 crores or 6.0% as against the increase of Tk.103.60 crores or 11.2% in the preceding year. The increase in Bangladesh Bank's credit to the government (net) by Tk.1,738.10 crores and net surplus in the foreign sector by Tk.1,262.40 crores played the main role in exerting expansionary influence on the Reserve Money. However the decline of Tk.333.60 crores and Tk.44.90 crores in the borrowings by the scheduled banks and other financial institutions respectively along with the fall of Tk.300.20 crores in other assets (net) partly offset the expansionary impact of those sectors.
Total domestic credit increased by Tk.8581.20 crores or 13.6% to Tk. 71,489.00 crores (including adjustment of bonds issued by the government) in 1999- 2000 as compared to the increase of Tk.7267.60 crores or 13.1% in the preceding year. Expansion of credit to the government, private, and public sectors to the extent of Tk.3524.30 crores (31.3%), Tk.4906.10 crores (10.7%), and Tk.150.80 crores (2.5%) respectively contributed to the expansion in total domestic credit in 1999-2000. Credit to the government and private sector had increased by 21.3% and 13.8% respectively, while credit to the public sector declined by 3.7% in the preceding year.
The outstanding level of bank credit (excluding foreign bills and inter-bank items) increased by Tk.5,123.30 crores or 10.3% to Tk.54,646.10 crores in 1999- 2000 as compared to the increase of 12.4% in the preceding year. Of the components of bank credit, advances increased by Tk.4892.70 crores or 10.3% and the bills purchased and discounted went up by Tk.230.60 crores or 11.3%.
Bank deposits (excluding inter-bank items) increased by Tk.11044.70 crores or 18.6% to Tk.70,278.70 crores in 1999-2000 compared to the increase of 14.2% in the preceding year. Of this increase , time deposits went up by Tk.9,103.80 crores or 19.9% to Tk.54,881.10 crores, government deposits by Tk.723.60 crores or 14.8% to Tk.5,615.20 crores and demand deposits by Tk. 1,142.50 crores or 13.3% to Tk.9,705.30 crores. On the other hand, restricted deposits increased by Tk.74.80 crores in 1999-2000.
CASH RESERVE REQUIREMENTS (CRR):
Statutory CRR with Bangladesh Bank was lowered for the scheduled banks to 4.0% of their liabilities (demand plus time deposits) (excluding inter-bank deposits) from 5% with effect from 1st October, 1999.
The Bank Rate was lowered from 8.0% to 7.0% on 29th August, 1999 and remained unchanged through 30th June, 2000.