Product costs:

Product costs include all the costs that are involved in acquiring or making a product. In the case of manufacturing goods these costs consist of direct material, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Product costs are initially assigned to inventories. So, they are known as inventoriable costs.

Role in decision-making

If an organization want to minimize their inventory cost they can fallow just in time process. In this process the cost of inventory is less than the normal process. So, the product cost is minimized and it will help to generate more profit.

If an organization follows normal process for manufacturing goods, then they must reserve material for future and it will cost a lot. Such as rent for place, guard salary, maintenance cost. And it will reduce net income. So, they must follow just in time process to increase the net income.

Period costs:

Period costs are all the costs that are not incurred in product costs. These costs are expensed on the income statement in the period in which they are incurred, using the usual rules of accrual accounting. Period costs are not included as part of the cost of either purchase or manufactured goods. Example: Sales commission, Office rent.

Role in decision-making

Depending on period cost we can also take some corrective action. Normally sales commission, office rent and other these types of cost are included in period cost. Suppose our net income is lower than our expectation then we can increase our net income by reducing period cost. Let’s take office rent. If our office rent is high then we can reduce the rent by shifting office place. However for many decision-making purposes the period costs are seen as being non-controllable in the short-term, so that attention may focus on product cost.