5.2.6 Job Design

Job design is the process of structuring work and designating the specific work activates of an individual or group of individuals to achieve certain organizational objectives.

The job design can generally be divided into three phases:

1. The specification of individual task.
2. The specification of the method of performing each task
3. The combination of individual tasks into specific job to be assign to  individual

Organizational considerations for job design


In the context of job design, to remain effective, organizations may have to redefine jobs, monitoring, and using technology so that the firm can even compete against giant rivals.


Maximum outputs through minimum inputs of time, effort and other resources. In the context of job design, efficiency in time, effort, labor costs, and training should be done accordingly.

Technological Considerations

Task Interdependence

The dependence of one task from another is task dependence. In this context, the task interdependence can be high or low depending on the product or service.

Technical constraints

Scarcity of machines are constraints, which in turn leads to the increase and decrease of production.

Ergonomic constraints

Greek word where Ergo = Work & Nomos = Laws, i.e Laws of work. Optimal productivity requires a relationship between the worker and the work, thus designing a job needs this consideration.

Employee considerations

Skill variety

Variety refers to the use of different skills and talents to complete an array of work tasks and activities.


Autonomy refers to the freedom and independence to plan and schedule the work and determine the procedures used to carry it out.

Task identity

Task identity means doing something from beginning to end rather than just part of it.

Task significance

It is the degree to which a job has substantial impact on an organization.


Feedback is the degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing based on information from the job.

Environmental considerations

Social expectations

In designing jobs, the surrounding social expectations must be considered to avoid possible worker dissatisfaction.

Workforce availability

Job requirements should be balanced against the availability of the people who are required to do the work.

Work practices

Work practices are set methods of performing work. These methods may arise from tradition or the collective wishes of employees.